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Series:

Edited by Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe

The European Yearbook promotes the scientific study of European organisations and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Each volume contains a detailed survey of the history, structure and yearly activities of each organisation and an up-to-date chart providing a clear overview of the member states of each organisation. In addition, a number of articles on topics of general interest are included in each volume. A general index by subject and name, and a cumulative index of all the articles which have appeared in the Yearbook, are included in every volume and provide direct access to the Yearbook's subject matter. Each volume contains a comprehensive bibliography covering the year's relevant publications. This is an indispensable work of reference for anyone dealing with the European institutions.

Series:

Edited by Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe

The European Yearbook promotes the scientific study of nineteen European supranational organisations and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Each volume contains a detailed survey of the history, structure and yearly activities of each organisation and an up-to-date chart providing a clear overview of the member states of each organisation. In addition, a number of articles on topics of general interest are included in each volume. A general index by subject and name, and a cumulative index of all the articles which have appeared in the Yearbook, are included in every volume and provide direct access to the Yearbook's subject matter. Each volume contains a comprehensive bibliography covering the year's relevant publications. This is an indispensable work of reference for anyone dealing with the European institutions.

Series:

Edited by Council of Europe/Conseil de l'Europe

The European Yearbook promotes the scientific study of nineteen European supranational organisations and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Each volume contains a detailed survey of the history, structure and yearly activities of each organisation and an up-to-date chart providing a clear overview of the member states of each organisation. In addition, a number of articles on topics of general interest are included in each volume. A general index by subject and name, and a cumulative index of all the articles which have appeared in the Yearbook, are included in every volume and provide direct access to the Yearbook's subject matter. Each volume contains a comprehensive bibliography covering the year's relevant publications. This is an indispensable work of reference for anyone dealing with the European institutions.

Series:

Sergei A. Voitovich

Voitovich presents a clear and lucid discussion of the manner and form in which international economic organizations (IEOs) participate in two main stages of the international legal process: law making and law implementation. The book is based on normative instruments and fragments of practice of about fifty IEOs. In order to ensure a proper and timely realization of their normative acts, IEOs exercise a number of law implementing functions which are subject to a thorough comparative examination. The author concludes that existing IEOs, not being ideal institutional models, possess a sufficient arsenal of law implementing instruments to make a considerable impact on the international legal regulations in the economic field. The book will be of interest to academics and economic political scientists.

Central Bank Independence

The Economic Foundations, the Constitutional Implications and Democratic Accountability

Series:

Edited by Jan Kleineman

In December 1999, prior to the forming of a Stockholm Centre for Commercial Law, an international symposium entitled Central Bank Independence was held at the Department of Law at Stockholm University in co-operation with the Swedish Central Bank (The Riksbank) and Queen Mary and Westfield College, London University. The participants were principally political, economic and legal specialists in the field, all with considerable international experience. This led to the topic being examined in detail from many different perspectives. This publication includes contributions by the participants and contains many important facts for those readers who wish to study and understand the different consequences of the yielding of control over financial policymaking by the traditional political organisations to a body of experts. For readers in some countries, who realise that the subject will revolutionise traditional Constitutional and Administrative Law, the topic and therefore this publication, cannot be ignored.

The Development and Effectiveness of International Administrative Law

On the Occasion of the Thirtieth Anniversary of the World Bank Administrative Tribunal

Series:

Edited by Olufemi Elias

International administrative law, or more precisely the law of the international civil service, has been the focus of increased attention in recent years. A part of the discussion has focused on the design of the justice mechanisms of international organizations, exemplified by the overhaul of the internal justice system of the United Nations in 2009. The internal justice systems of some international organizations have been subjected to scrutiny before some national courts, and the role and contribution of international administrative tribunals to the development of the law continue to be an important part of discussions of good governance and accountability of international organizations. The essays in this book, written by judges, practitioners, academics and other experts, address these and other issues.

The Legal Position of Intergovernmental Organizations

A Functional Necessity Analysis of their Legal Status and Immunities

Series:

Pieter H.F. Bekker

This book is the first treatise in English to present an overall functional necessity approach to the study of the legal position of intergovernmental organizations. According to this approach, an international organization is entitled to (no more than) what is strictly necessary for the exercise of its functions in the fulfilment of its purpose. The book provides a three-step analysis that relates an organization's legal status, privileges and immunities to the functions and purposes of the organization.
After a review of the work of the International Law Commission on Relations between States and International Organizations, between 1962 and 1992, the author first introduces an identification process of the study's subject matter and scope ratione personae, i.e. the legal status of intergovernmental organizations. The legal personality, legal capacities, and competence (powers) of international organizations are analyzed from the perspective of their functions and purposes. Step Two presents a review of the basic considerations in granting organizational immunities, and their legal sources. Step Three focuses on the `official activities' of international organizations, which is the core of the application of functional necessity in determining the extent of organizational immunities. The book also reviews existing methods of counterbalancing organizational immunities, and applies the three-step functional necessity analysis to a case study of the International Tin Council. Finally, a general conclusion underlines the character of organizational immunity law as a balanced and self-contained régime.

The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal

Controversies, Cases and Contribution

Rahmatullah Khan

The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal is arguably the most significant arbitral institution of the twentieth century. Although the completion of its last few cases could take a long time, the Tribunal's impressive work must be made available now as a guide to the resolution of ongoing disputes and for future tribunals.
The Tribunal has, by this point, disposed of well over 98 percent of its caseload. Little more remains for its participants to learn, but the Tribunal shows no signs of fading away. Both of the two States Parties, for different reasons, see greater advantage in the Tribunal's prolongation than in its elimination.
The authors have succeeded in dealing with all of the most deserving Tribunal subjects. Moreover, their intimate involvement in and knowledge of the Tribunal ensure that their book is a fascinating, important, and indispensable contribution to the literature of International Law. This is a definitive book on a monumental event in the law and in history at the close of a century.
The Iran-United States Claims Tribunal was awarded the ASIL Certificate of Merit.

Finn Seyersted

This work provides a comprehensive theory of the system of legal norms that are developed partly in the internal written (constitutional) law of intergovernmental organizations and partly through their consistent practice, and that are therefore common to intergovernmental organizations.
The legal construction presented in this volume consists of the following main elements:
As for all other self-governing communities all intergovernmental organizations possess their own internal law governing their relations with 1) the organs of the organization, 2) the officials and 3) the member states in their capacity as members of the organization. Some organizations exercise in addition extended (delegated) jurisdiction over states, other organizations and/or individuals.
Secondly, as for other self-governing communities all intergovernmental organizations are subjects of public international law in their relations with other self-governing communities (states and other intergovernmental organizations), and in the case of extended jurisdiction, also in relations with individuals and private entities.
Thirdly, as for all other self-governing communities possessing its own internal law (its distinct lex personalis), intergovernmental organizations enter into relations of a private law nature with both public and private entities. Governed by the rules on conflict of laws, these relations must be determined by assessing relevant 1) personal, 2) territorial and 3) organic connecting factors.
Thus Common Law of Intergovernmental Organizations brings together all those elements pertaining to the theory of objective legal personality that have been presented in a scattered fashion, in bits and pieces.
Common Law of Intergovernmental Organizations, starting out from the position of objective legal personality, is fully compatible with modern requirements of good governance and accountability of international organizations, and particularly adaptable to the ideal of “systemic integration” of legal regimes constituting internal law of the organization.

Alfred E. Kellermann, Giuseppe Ciavarini Azzi, Rex Deighton-Smith, Scott H. Jacobs and T. Koopmans

In April 1997, during the Dutch presidency of the European Union, a three-day international conference was held in The Hague, The Netherlands, on the subject of The Quality of European and National Legislation and the Internal Market. The present publication comprises the proceedings and conclusions of this timely conference, which was organized by the T.M.C. Asser Instituut, The Hague, on behalf of the Ministries of Justice and Economic Affairs of The Netherlands and the European Commission.
The objective of the conference was to suggest ways of improving the legislation in the European Union against the background of the common market. The quality of the drafting of Community legislation is crucial if it is to be properly implemented by competent national authorities and better understood by the public and in business circles.
The conference focused on European legislation and on national legislation in the Member States. Representatives of the European Union, the governments, the academic world, industry and consumer organizations gave their views of and commented on the three main themes of the conference: (I) the experiences on European and national level regarding the judicial quality of legislation; (II) simplification of existing legislation and (III) assessment of draft legislation. The updated and revised versions of their studies and comments are published in the present book. During the final session of the conference, current initiatives in the field of improving the quality of legislation were reviewed (e.g., on consolidation, codification, guidelines and deregulation).
The main findings of the conference were brought to the attention of the Internal Market Council and the IGC as a preparation of the European Council of Amsterdam (16-17 June, 1997) where the Draft Treaty of Amsterdam was concluded. Many of the conference findings and suggestions were repeated in the documents of the Draft Treaty.
In addition to the above-mentioned contributions, the book contains (i) a valuable methodical digest of the conference, including a closer evaluation of the Draft Treaty of Amsterdam, and (ii) a summing-up of the results of the important debate by Professor L.J. Brinkhorst (European Parliament, Strasbourg/Brussels). The book is also enriched by relevant documentation in the field.