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Contracting Party” shall, in relation to the Republic of China, mean all persons who are Chinese citizens by virtue of the Chinese nationality laws; and in relation to the Kingdom of the Netherlands, mean all persons being Netherlands subjects by virtue of the Netherlands nationality laws. Article 2 All

In: Forgotten Diplomacy

signed between Britain and the Qing in 1842–1843 provided for the opening of five Chinese ports to foreign trade, tariff exemptions, and immunity from Chinese laws for British subjects. 3 The United States and France soon followed suit, exacting similar privileges offering legal immunity and consular

In: Forgotten Diplomacy

crossed at this instance, hitting a rare equilibrium point in what historically had been an uneven relationship. How these momentous encounters and historic transformations ultimately charted a new course for their bilateral ties is the subject of this book. 1 Dutch Diplomatic History Dutch diplomatic

In: Forgotten Diplomacy

tariffs and abolished all Dutch nonreciprocal rights in this context, subject only to the principle of nondiscrimination (most favored nation). From 1928 to 1930, the Nanjing government concluded similar instruments with 12 other treaty powers. However, owing to delays in the ratification process, the

In: Forgotten Diplomacy

Japanese puppet regimes, the inland city of Chongqing would serve as the capital of “free” China throughout the remainder of the war. Between 1939 and 1944, Japanese forces subjected the city to massive, indiscriminate air raids, unprecedented at that time in terms of magnitude, impact, and duration, known

In: Forgotten Diplomacy

director of European and African affairs of the Waijiaobu, Huan Xiang 宦乡, the latter read out a statement to the effect that the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two governments could not be subject to any condition and that the Chinese government would determine its position vis-à-vis the

In: Forgotten Diplomacy

were those of a tall European subject “of the Nordic type.” Inscriptions on the wedding ring found on the left hand removed any doubt that this was the body of François Bourdrez. 197 All surviving official documents, including the autopsy report, list 11 May as the date of his death. However, it was

In: Forgotten Diplomacy

­nation of diplomatic ties with the Nationalist regime at Taiwan are the subject of the next chapter. 1146 Diplomatic note (no. K-5/II/2817) from the Dutch embassy in Beijing to the Waijiaobu dated 6 June 1946 in reply to the latter’s memorandum dated 22 February 1946 (AS 11-LAW-00832; NNA 2

In: Forgotten Diplomacy