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environment. It causes habitat destruction and fragmentation, animal mortality and chemical and noise pollution (Forman & Alexander, 1998 ). Several studies have investigated the impact of traffic noise on natural populations, as it is undoubtedly the most important source of anthropogenic noise. For example

In: Behaviour

-West, 2007 ), call rate, call duration and call frequency (Penna et al., 2005 ; Kaiser & Hammers, 2009 ; Cunnington & Fahrig, 2010 ; Gross et al., 2010 ; Both & Grant, 2012 ). A previous study suggests that traffic noise can inhibit calling in anurans leading to a pattern of calling gap behaviour with

In: Behaviour

, gleaning bats, whose echolocation signaling is affected by the presence of traffic noise, are suffer- ing from a decreased rate of prey capture (Barber et al., 2010). The timing and amplitude of anthropogenic noise like other sources of background noise 1052 Background noise and evolution of communication

In: Behaviour

, such as traffic noise providing a more or less steady background level. Other sources are industrial or construction noise, noise associated with human leisure activities invading otherwise quieter habitats, as well as noise present during husbandry and transport of domestic animals. These different

In: Behaviour

physiological parameters and carotenoid-based coloration in an urbanization context . — Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 69 : 957 - 970 . Goodwin , S.E. & Shriver , W.G. ( 2011 ). Effects of traffic noise on occupancy patterns of forest birds . — Conserv. Biol. 25 : 406 - 411 . Greenberg , R. & Mettke

In: Behaviour

. Halfwerk , W. , Holleman , L.J.M. , Lessells , K.M. & Slabbekoorn , H. ( 2011 b). Negative impact of traffic noise on avian reproductive success . — J. Appl. Ecol. 48 : 210 - 219 . Halfwerk , W. , Bot , S. & Slabbekoorn , H. ( 2012 ). Male great tit song perch selection in response to

In: Behaviour

& Ramankutty, 2008), one of the more poorly understood consequences of such alteration is the effect of the introduction of anthropogenic noise, such as traffic noise, on acousti- cally communicating animals. Some species of birds have been shown to avoid habitats near roads (Forman & Alexander, 1998) or to

In: Behaviour

such as road construction and subsequent traffic noise in pristine habi- tats has been shown to be detrimental to a range of vertebrate taxa. The effect of anthro- pogenic noise on anuran communication is not well known, and has only recently been a topic of investigation. We tested the effect of

In: Behaviour

periods of heavy traffic noise. This too would not solely account for increased vocal output we saw, especially as the extended length of the chorus we witnessed would negate anti-masking advantages of starting to sing earlier to signal before the traffic noise begins to increase. Acute exposure to noise

In: Behaviour

. Cunnington G.M. Fahrig L. ( 2010 ): Plasticity in the vocalizations of anurans in response to traffic noise . Acta Oecol. 36 : 463 - 470 . Davies M.S. ( 1987 ): Acoustically mediated neighbor recognition in the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbiana . Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol

In: Amphibia-Reptilia