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Een zwarte vrijstaat in Suriname (deel 2)

De Okaanse samenleving in de negentiende en twintigste eeuw


Wilhelmina van Velzen and H.U.E. Thoden van Velzen

In 2011 verscheen Een zwarte vrijstaat in Suriname; De Okaanse samenleving in de 18e eeuw. Het vertelt de geschiedenis van slaven die in de achttiende eeuw de plantages ontvluchtten om diep in het regenwoud, in het zuidoosten van Suriname, een nieuwe samenleving op te bouwen. Deze Marrons, zoals de ontsnapte slaven werden genoemd, sloten in 1760 een vredesverdrag met de planters. Zij noemden zich Okanisi. Hier, in dit tweede deel van deze historie, wordt verslag gedaan van de gebeurtenissen zoals die zich na 1800 afspeelden in de onafhankelijke gemeenschappen van Okaanse Marrons. Het is een bewogen geschiedenis van profetische bewegingen, heksenvervolgingen, en de opkomst van een eigen, inheemse, kerk. Al deze voor buitenstaanders exotische gebeurtenissen speelden zich af in een samenleving die hecht was geïntegreerd in het economische leven van de Guiana’s. In de twintigste eeuw vinden de eerste grote botsingen plaats tussen de Okanisi en het koloniale en postkoloniale bestuur van Suriname. Soms ging het om een staking die het economische leven van de kolonie dreigde te verlammen; later, eind jaren tachtig, toen Suriname onafhankelijk was, zorgde de opstand van enkele honderden Okaanse jongeren, en de gedoogsteun van de bevolking, voor een kritieke situatie in de jonge republiek. In deze eeuw zijn het voornamelijk conflicten over het behoud van het oude grondgebied, en zijn natuurlijke hulpbronnen, die de oude vrijstaat bedreigen.

In Een zwarte vrijstaat in Suriname, deel 2, Van Wetering and Thoden van Velzen relate the history of the Okanisi after their successful escape into the South American rainforest and the signing of a peace treaty with Dutch planters in 1760.
Following Part 1, which deals with their struggle for freedom, this volume describes the emergence of an autonomous Okanisi Maroon state; its integration into the economic life of the Guiana’s, but also its internal development, as it manifested itself through prophetic movements, anti-witchcraft purges and the rise of a native church. Predominantly based on oral sources, this book charts a previously undocumented history and provides a unique insight into a culture emerging from the roots of slavery.

Creole Jews

Negotiating Community in Colonial Suriname


Wieke Vink

This study presents a refined analysis of Surinames-Jewish identifications. The story of the Surinamese Jews is one of a colonial Jewish community that became ever more interwoven with the local environment of Suriname. Ever since their first settlement, Jewish migrants from diverse backgrounds, each with their own narrative of migration and settlement, were faced with challenges brought about by this new environment; a colonial order and, in essence, a race-based slave society. A place, furthermore, that was constantly changing: economically, socially, demographically, politically and culturally.

Against this background, the Jewish community transformed from a migrant community into a settlers’ community. Both the Portuguese and High German Jews adopted Paramaribo as their principal place of residence from the late eighteenth century onwards. Radical economic changes—most notably the decline of the Portuguese-Jewish planters’ class—not only influenced the economic wealth of the Surinamese Jews as a group, but also had considerable impact on their social status in Suriname’s society.

The story of the Surinamese Jews is a prime example of the many ways in which a colonial environment and diasporic connections put their stamp on everyday life and affected the demarcation of community boundaries and group identifications. The Surinamese-Jewish community debated, contested and negotiated the pillars of a Surinamese-Jewish group identity not only among themselves but also with the colonial authorities.

This book is based on the author’s dissertation.

Bogdan C. Iacob

.1/Commission international/Réunion 1980: 71). His statements echoed an intervention, during the Commission’s first meeting, by the Jamaican Kamau Brathwaite. The latter underlined that outside of the West there were “‘maroon’ societies,” the product of consistent neglect “in the opinion of some kind of

Atlantic Biographies

Individuals and Peoples in the Atlantic World


Edited by Jeffrey A. Fortin and Mark Meuwese

This volume uses a biography-as-history approach to illuminate the interconnectedness of the peoples of the Americas, West Africa, and Europe. Contributors highlight individuals' and people's experiences made possible by their participation in the creation of an Atlantic world, where conflict, cooperation, neccessity and invention led to new societies and cultures.

Composed of chapters that span a broad chronological, topical and thematic range, Atlantic Biographies highlights the uniqueness of the Atlantic as a social, political, economic, and cultural theater bound together to illustrate what the Atlantic meant to those subjects of each chapter. This is a book about people, their resilience, and their resolve to carve a niche or have a broader impact in the ever-changing world around them.

Richard Hellie

's article, "Up through Servitude," in this issue. 217. Miers and Kopytoff, pp. 445-46. 218. Melaffe, Negro Slavery in Latin America, pp. 102-04. 203 bos, ladeiras, sometimes republics) resembling in many respects the cossack communities of Muscovy. (There were also a handful of maroon communities in

Andrei Znamenski

bureaucrats continued to maroon him, keeping both him and his wife in dark about their future. Not yet fully sure about the couple amid the reigning xenophobic campaign that by 1949 acquired hysterical proportions, the distrustful superiors were not in hurry, double-checking them and simultaneously trying to

John Mccannon

and southwest agricultural heartlands, they failed to capitalize upon the Republic's initial confusion. The rebel commander, General Jos6 Sanjurjo, died in a plane crash on July 20, while Francisco Franco, second in command, was marooned with his troops in Spanish Morocco as enthusiastic, if inexpert


-European preoccupation in his comedy, The Admi- r a b l e Crichton (1902), the story o f a noble family whose butler proves to be na- turally superior when they are marooned on an island. In the Russian case, an age in which rank and privilege would count for naught, indeed for less than naught, already loomed on the

The Language of Letters

Southeast Asian Understandings of Ottoman Diplomatics


Annabel Teh Gallop, A.C.S. Peacock and İsmail Hakkı Kadı

still have their original envelopes. The Kedah letter of 1824 was enclosed in an envelope of white cotton with the name of the addressee written directly on the envelope. The two letters from Aceh, dispatched a year apart, were sent in identical richly brocaded maroon silk envelopes, implying that the