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Li Ma

immediately after attracting public attention. For example, in 2012, the Chinese translation of the book Bending Spines , by Christian scholar Randall Bytwerk, quickly became a best-seller. But since it is a study of Nazi propaganda in Germany, it was soon forbidden to sell it. The book was actually a superb

Between Occultism and Nazism

Anthroposophy and the Politics of Race in the Fascist Era


Peter Staudenmaier

The relationship between Nazism and occultism has been an object of fascination and speculation for decades. Peter Staudenmaier’s Between Occultism and Nazism provides a detailed historical examination centered on the anthroposophist movement founded by Rudolf Steiner. Its surprising findings reveal a remarkable level of Nazi support for Waldorf schools, biodynamic farming, and other anthroposophist initiatives, even as Nazi officials attempted to suppress occult tendencies. The book also includes an analysis of anthroposophist involvement in the racial policies of Fascist Italy. Based on extensive archival research, this study offers rich material on controversial questions about the nature of esoteric spirituality and alternative cultural ideals and their political resonance.


G. Anthony Keddie

apocalypticism is the disagreement between Albert Kalthoff (1850–1906) and Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965). 3 A German theologian, Kalthoff argued that there was no historical Jesus and that Christianity and its canonical gospels emerged in Rome as a response of the urban proletariat to exploitative economic


How Taiwanese Conservative Christianity Turned Public during the Same-Sex Marriage Controversy and a Secularist Backlash

dissident to “pray for healing him.” 27 Gay-rights supporters and progressives were angered by these order-keeping measures and associated them with the Ku Klux Klan (due to the similarity of headgear) and Nazis (due to the similarity between the extended arms and the fascist salute). In another

Stephen G. Parker, Jenny Berglund, David Lewin and Deirdre Raftery

, structures and relations (e.g. Nazi education is not a contradiction in terms because the Nazi educator intends something good for the influencee). Second, when thinking about definitions of religion there is a tendency to see religious influence as substantially different from other forms of influence

Élise Rouméas

Western trend to recognizing and expanding a right to conscientious objection was reinforced in its aftermath. In Germany, it was presented as a protection against a reemergence of Nazism and introduced in the Constitution of 1949. In the United States, a large increase in the numbers of objectors

Dan Cohn-Sherbok

? The Horrors of the Holocaust The first stage of the Nazi’s plan for European Jewry began with the invasion of Poland in September 1939. In every conquered town and village the Germans forced Jews to undertake various types of tasks in public to de-humanize them (for example, cleaning pavements and

Vince Oliveri

constructively shaping the church of the future. The first three chapters evaluate Luther’s legacy. Hartmut Lehmann and Victoria Barnett respectively analyze the troubled state of Luther’s legacy in Nazi Germany. They disclose how Luther’s heritage was largely misappropriated by an ethno-nationalist Germanic

Victoria Nesfield

legislation has localized the issue and stirred up old memories in the former Nazi territory. No country so conscientiously works to commemorate and remember the Holocaust, and encourage the post-Holocaust generations to do the same, as Germany does. The situation of Germany and the Holocaust is admittedly