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Grant W. Grams

Louis Hamilton (1879–1948) was a British national that had a remarkable career lecturing in Germany during the Kaiser Reich (1871 to 1918), Weimar Republic (1919–1933), and the early stages of the Nazi era (1933–1945). Between the two world wars academics in Europe, North America, private


Martin Wein

In History of the Jews in the Bohemian Lands, Martin Wein traces the interaction of Czechs and Jews, but also of Christian German-speakers, Slovaks, and other groups in the Bohemian lands and in Czechoslovakia throughout the first half of the twentieth century. This period saw accelerated nation-building and nation-cleansing in the context of hegemony exercised by a changing cast of great powers, namely Austria-Hungary, France, Nazi Germany, and the Soviet Union. The author examines Christian-Jewish and inner-Jewish relations in various periods and provinces, including in Subcarpathian Ruthenia, emphasizing interreligious alliances of Jews with Protestants, such as T. G. Masaryk, and political parties, for example a number of Social Democratic ones. The writings of Prague’s Czech-German-Jewish founders of theories of nationalism, Hans Kohn, Karl W. Deutsch, and Ernest Gellner, help to interpret this history.

Patrick Bernhard

Historical Strands in the Interpretation of Italian and German Racism Conventional historical wisdom has long viewed racism as a point of distinction between Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. 1 Particularly in the decades immediately following the war, scholars identified racism and anti

Constantin Iordachi and Ottmar Traşcă

reorganization of Europe harbored by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany and partially implemented during the Second World War have received limited attention. More recently, new works on the wartime history of the continent pointed out that the experiment of the Nazi Neuordnung Europas [New Order] was ‘crucial to

Various Authors & Editors

Archive of former Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany, 1918-1941

At the end of the First World War in November 1918 the German Empire found itself in a crisis situation. On the western front the army had for all practical purposes already been defeated in September and in Germany itself a mood of imminent revolution, mutiny and disintegrating authority reigned. As early as October Kaiser Wilhelm II felt compelled to take a step in the direction of democracy by appointing a parliamentary government under prince Max von Baden as Imperial Chancellor. His strategy of trying to preserve the monarchy through the abdication of the Kaiser and Crown Prince in favour of a regent failed due to the Kaiser’s indecisiveness. As the news from Berlin worsened, the Kaiser, who was in Spa in Belgium at the time, finally announced his willingness to abdicate as German Emperor, but wished to remain King of Prussia in order to lead his armies back to the fatherland. His troops, however, would no longer follow him. Since the Kaiser could neither return to a Berlin grown unsafe through the threat of revolution nor remain with his unreliable forces in Spa, he had no other choice than to flee to the nearby and neutral territory of the Netherlands, where he arrived with his suite on 10 November 1918, the Dutch government arranging for hospitality. On the 11th the Kaiser signed the instrument of abdication. This was the start of his long exile in the Netherlands that would last until his death on 4 June 1941. Most of his stay was spent at the castle-like residence he had purchased known as Huis Doorn.

Plans to return
From the moment he had set foot on Dutch soil until his death in 1941, the Kaiser himself remained convinced that he would some day be able to return to Germany. Through invitations, for example, to Herman Göring, who visited Doorn twice, and by publishing books and pamphlets himself or having them published, the Kaiser tried to justify his period of rule and prepare his return to Germany as monarch. All these efforts, however, yielded very few results, for only a small part of the people wanted him back as ruler and with the rise of National Socialism the ranks of those loyal to the Kaiser thinned even more.

National Socialism
The Kaiser himself always maintained an ambivalent attitude toward the Nazis. In one of his archaeological studies, for example, he treated the origin of the swastika: one version with the arms facing left was said to symbolize the sun, happiness and prosperity, whereas, the other, the one adopted by the Nazis, symbolized misfortune and decline. The Kaiser’s negative attitude toward the Nazis seems attested to by the fact that he sheltered refugees from their regime. Nevertheless he sent Adolf Hitler his congratulations on the capitulation of France in 1940. Such contradictions were typical of the Kaiser’s character.

In addition to his activities in the political sphere, the Kaiser now had time to devote to his hobbies. In the early years of his stay in the Netherlands, he chopped wood on an almost daily basis; he often also took long walks. It was archaeology, however, that proved to be his greatest and most productive hobby. In addition, the Kaiser also composed and delivered many religious sermons.

At first the Kaiser’s financial situation was anything but rosy since the new government in Germany had confiscated a large part of his personal fortune. Nonetheless the Kaiser possessed sufficient funds to purchase Huis Doorn and to furnish the interior with 20 boxcars of furniture brought from imperial possessions in Germany. His various revenues allowed the Kaiser to maintain a reasonable-sized court, including a fleet of automobiles and staff for handling correspondence and the household.

Social life
Daily life at Huis Doorn centered around the Kaiser, who invited a steady stream of guests to visit him. High point of the social year was the Kaiser’s birthday on 27 January at which many princely personalities from Germany were often present. The Kaiser in exile turned out to be a more human figure than had been supposed during his reign, though he remained a man torn by inner conflicts, oscillating between hope and despair concerning his eventual return to Germany as monarch. As time passed, the Kaiser became more and more a tragic figure until death took him at the age of 82. He was interred in the garden of Huis Doorn.

Various Authors & Editors

The Dutch Underground Press 1940-1945
Dutch underground newspapers published between 1940 and 1945 (State Institute for War Documentation, Amsterdam)

The founding of the State Institute for War Documentation in Amsterdam on the 8th of May 1945 was already being prepared during the last years of the German occupation of The Netherlands. The Institute considered its first responsibility to be the collecting of all kinds of documents of historical value relating to the occupation, especially those in the possession of private citizens, where preservation might not be certain. By means of an intensive radio, press, and poster campaign the Institute succeeded in forming an almost complete collection of the vast number of newspapers circulated clandestinely during the war. This material ranged from primitively handwritten or typed sheets, calling for opposition to the Nazis or containing simple daily news items to professionally edited and printed papers filled with political articles and views as well as pieces on national socialism, measures imposed by the enemy, and during the later years of the war expectations and concepts related to the reconstruction of a new democracy in a liberated country, as well as to military and political developments throughout the world. The tens of thousands of issues of these papers provide a wealth of invaluable data on every conceivable aspect of a West European nation during the Second World War, a rich source for historical and sociological research.
Harry Paape, Director Netherlands State Institute for War Documentation

On May 14, 1940 the Dutch army capitulated. On May 15th the first underground paper appeared: Geuzenactie (Beggars' Action). A month later the second underground paper, Bulletin, more a real newspaper as regards form and contents, saw the light of day. The first issue of one of the best-known underground papers of the whole period of occupation, Vrij Nederland (the Free Netherlands), was dated August 31, 1940, Queen Wilhelmina's birthday. As far as is known, by January 1941, 62 different underground papers were publishing with an estimated circulation of 57,000. In February 1941 a roundup of Jews was made in the streets of Amsterdam, to which the population replied with a general strike. The possibility of expressing oneself legally became smaller and smaller and after this event, the underground press developed rapidly. In spite of Nazi prosecution papers appeared with ever increasing frequency. More care was also bestowed on their outward appearance. The total number of underground papers for 1941 was about twice as large as 1940: about 120 publications are known to us. The number decreased somewhat to 96 in 1942. In 1943 resistance in the Netherlands increased. Altogether, 150 new publications appeared in the course of that year, some of which discussed problems of postwar reconstruction exclusively.

In 1944 developments in the occupied Netherlands were at first determined by the eagerly awaited invasion of Western Europe; after the beginning of the landings in Normandy the course of military operations became the determining factor. In the first few months of the year the underground press helped disseminate instructions for the civil population broadcast by the BBC and Radio Oranje by order of General Eisenhower. The approaching struggle also forced the underground groups to cooperate more intensively. In the beginning of September 1944 the Allied armies neared The Netherlands. Never had there been greater need for the underground papers; never had it been more difficult to produce them. But the makers of the underground press were resourceful and indefatigable. The greatest need was for news. Accordingly, from the beginning of September to the end of December 1944, 350 new news-bulletins arose. The total for all of 1944 reached 500. Several hundred more publications sprang up in the last months before the liberation to bring the grand total since May 1940 to some 1,300.

Finding aids
Easy access to the collection is provided by an IDC adaptation of the original collection catalogue De Ondergrondse Pers 1940-1945 by L.E. Winkel (1954) and by eye-legible headers. The newspapers are arranged in alphabetical order numbered consecutively. The issues of each newspaper are arranged chronologically. The microfiches on which a particular title can be found are indicated by number next to the title in the catalogue. The catalogue numbers of the newspapers contained on a particular fiche are clearly indicated in the eye-legible headers on the fiche. In addition the headers contain an alphabetical reference for quick-searching. The catalogue has been brought up to date by IDC to take account of additions to the collection since 1954. It includes the complete original 69-page introduction, an English summary and frequent historical notes about individual newspapers. In addition each title in the catalogue contains information - as far as is known - about the place, time and frequency of publication, as well as remarks on the form, content, print run and the extent of the collection's holdings of the title.

IDC is grateful to the publishers of Trouw (BV Trouw/Kwartet), Vrij Nederland (BV Weekbladpers), Het Vrije Volk, and De Waarheid, for permission to reproduce their underground issues as part of the present microfiche collection.

Johnson, Ronald W.

for Hitler's government. Kuhn's leadership embarrassed the German foreign ministry as well as German-Americans who opposed the Nazi regime.keywordsGerman-American Bund; Nazi Germany; U.S.-German relati...

Moss, Kenneth

Bibliographic entry in Chapter 12: The United States, Europe, and Asia between the World Wars | Biographical Studies authorMoss, KennethimprintDelaware History 17 (Fall 1977): 236-49.annotationParticularly in the period 1933-1940, Messersmith helped shape American attitudes toward Nazi Germany. He

Smith, Arthur L., Jr.

Bibliographic entry in Chapter 12: The United States, Europe, and Asia between the World Wars | U.S. Relations with Europe authorSmith, Arthur L., Jr.imprintThe Hague: M. Nijhoff, 1965.annotationSmith offers a history of the relationship of German-Americans to the rise of Nazism in Germany and of

Martijn Eickhoff

phenomena in private and public life, with the question of how culture in general contributed to the inner functioning of fascist societies. Inspired by that approach in Brill’s Companion to the Classics, Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany fourteen authors (in sixteen contributions) give an excellent