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Arthur Cooper

Edited by Imre Galambos

‘South’ and ‘sound’ in the sense of ‘able-bodied, healthy’ seem also to be of the same root (compare Old German ‘sund-ar’ for ‘south’). Defended in our essentially urban civilisation equally from the elements and from the time of day (which means to most of us ‘six o’clock’ sooner than it does ‘sunset

Alexander Beider

, during which millions of Yiddish speakers were killed under the German Nazi regime. In this context, it is psychologically understandable that certain Jewish scholars became reluctant to consider Yiddish a daughter language of (Middle High) German. Clearly, as in the case of the Naïve Germanistic

Nimrod Shatil

1 157 186 Reshef Y. Izreel S. “How Was Hebrew Spoken? Some Linguistic Traits of the Spoken Hebrew in Its Early Period of Existence.” The Speech Machine as Language Teacher. “One Speaks Hebrew Here:” Hebrew Voices from Nazi Germany as Evidence of the Living Language

Kalman Weiser

position in the Soviet Union despite a lack of genuine enthusiasm for the regime’s ideology. The individual most responsible for implementing Shtif’s vision was, Kuznitz clarifies, Weinreich, who was born into a German-speaking family in Courland (now Latvia) and mastered Yiddish in his adolescence. A

Isaac L. Bleaman

years 1933–1945, with special reference to membership in Nazi organizations and to participation in the German war against the Jews” (see also Peltz 2013; M. Weinreich 1946). For Weinreich, scholarship always needed to be socially informed as well as socially responsible and, like language, was always

Chaya R. Nove

a corrupt offshoot of German, unworthy of serious regard (Frakes 2012; Gilman 1986; Grossman 2000). For medieval scholars, Yiddish served as a symbolic resource of xenophobic and anti-Semitic discourse. Constant exposure to opprobrium of their vernacular led to what Gilman (1986) describes as

Steffen Krogh

, grammatical categories can disappear in the dominated language independently of whether the dominant language exhibits parallel constructions; compare, for example, the loss of the passive voice in Moundridge Schweitzer German, a German settlement dialect spoken in South Central Kansas (Putnam & Salmons 2013

Joseph Chetrit

, and France as Jewish communities adopted Romance languages, and again during the tenth and twelfth centuries in the German Rhineland, with the adoption of Mittelhochdeutsch ; all these languages are at the origin of Yiddish, which developed and stabilized in its various varieties of Eastern Yiddish

Gabriella Safran

within a language as a socially recognized register of forms” (Agha 2003 :231). From the nineteenth century, among Russians as among other Europeans (especially Germans), Jewish language was enregistered as a speech style characterized by loudness, prolixity, combativeness, emotionality, and energetic