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Henry G. Schermers and Niels M. Blokker

responsible to the European Parliament for inspections. Any dispute can be settled by the European Court of Justice. In 1990, the Commission applied sanctions for the first time on the basis of Article 83 of the Euratom Treaty. A German firm, ANF Lingen, was placed under administration for four months. 177

person con- victed in Germany of genocide acts since the post-World War 11 Nurenberg trial condemned dozens of German Nazi's for their complicity in the Holocaust (WP, 27 September, p. A14) 1 October NATO peacekeepers today seized four key television transmitters controlled by the hard-line Bosnian Serb

Henry G. Schermers and Niels M. Blokker

, imprisonment of up to one year, loss of the right to serve in public functions and of civil rights (rights of citizenship). 554 The German Nazi regime never went this far, but de facto it exercised a similar influence on its nationals. 555 The German and Italian Under Secretaries-General of the League of

Manus I. Midlarsky

cases of genocide are examined, then we are left with partial validation of a theory that has not been adequately exposed to the possibility of invalidation. In The Killing Trap , 1 I examined two broad categories of ‘dogs that didn’t bark’. In the first, European allies of Nazi Germany in the

Rethinking Approaches to Prevention under the Responsibility to Protect

Agency and Empowerment within Vulnerable Populations

Deborah Mayersen

their risk or experience of mass atrocities. In two cases of mass atrocities, that is the experiences of German and Austrian Jews under Nazi rule, members of the targeted groups were able to utilise their agency to ensure that at least some of the group did not fall victim to genocide. In two ‘negative

Eleonora Mesquita Ceia

transitional justice begins primarily with the defeat of Germany in 1945. 7 The confrontation with the past in divided Germany after 1945 is a unique and highly complex case of transitional justice. The trial of Nazi war criminals was initially jointly carried out by occupying powers, then conducted

Marcin Kaldunski

population not only as enemies, but even as traitors, who betrayed Germany and therefore deserved the worst treatment. The Nazi German government was of the view that international humanitarian law could not be fully applicable to new circumstances. 4 Germany occupied a part of Italian territory and

Stephen McLoughlin

revolution. In both these cases each group were able to use their agency to reduce their susceptibility to such violence. In the two positive cases – German and Austrian Jews under Nazi rule, she demonstrates how they were ‘intensely active in attempting to reduce their risk of experiencing mass atrocities

Ervin Staub

evolution of leaders – whether the Khmer Rouge or Nazis. In Overcoming Evil I only briefly discuss Hitler, and note many influences on him, but not ‘childhood deprivation.’ But perhaps more importantly, while I consider the significant role of leaders, I also very much stress the role of followers, and

EYEWITNESS

Civil Affairs Operations by IFOR and SFOR in Bosnia, 1995―97

PETER CADDICK-ADAMS

troops. US forces control the North division, working with Russian, Swedish, Danish, Norwegian, Turkish and Polish soldiers. Smaller contingents from Greece, Austria, Belgium, Hungary, Finland, Romania, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Switzerland and Luxembourg also contribute. From early 1997, Germany