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Various Authors & Editors

Rare Printed Sources and Reference Works for the History of Dutch Colonialism

on microfiche

Grothe, J.A. Archief voor de geschiedenis der oude Hollandsche zending. 6 vols. Utrecht, 1884-1891.

J.A. Grothe scoured church and colonial archives to find sources on Dutch Protestant missionary activity in the eastern and western hemispheres in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He excerpted the acts of provincial synods and other ecclesiastical bodies in two volumes covering the period 1621-1807. While most of these deliberations concerned the missions in Asia, there is also information on activities in the West Indies and Brazil (1636-1649). He further compiled two volumes of documents on Formosa (1628-1661) and two on the Moluccas (1603-1638) drawing on the archives of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).

Jeongran Yoon

anti-communism rooted in authoritarianism and a staunch refusal to compromise. From the mid-to-late 1950s, however, South Korean Protestants would reconstitute their anti-communism. In this era, they saw their struggle as a competition between systems, not simply one to eradicate the North Korean

Various Authors & Editors

Rare Indonesian-Language Periodical: Tjahaja Sijang (The Light of Day), 1869-1925

In cooperation with the Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia and the Library of the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies, Moran Micropublications has made an edition on microfiche of the very rare twice monthly newspaper Tjahaja Sijang (The Light of Day), which was published in Manado in the Minahasa region of northern Sulawesi between 1869 and 1925. It is one of the oldest Malay-language newspapers of the Netherlands East Indies and the first, and for five decades, only one published in the Minahasa. It is of great importance for the history of the local and regional press in Indonesia.

Founder and goals
It was founded by Nicolaas Graafland, a missionary of the Protestant Nederlandsche Zendelinggenootschap, with the goal of fostering the development of the indigenous people of the Minahasa, not only in a religious sense, but also socially, intellectually and morally through reading and education. Graafland himself had been sent to the East Indies to help set up teacher training schools and viewed the paper as an extension of such work. In this regard the paper was part of a current of colonial thinking promoting the uplifting of the people through education that would crystallize into the “Ethical Policy” around 1900. The choice of name is no accident. Its task was to bring light to the population, not only the light of the Gospel, but also that of western civilization banishing the dark age of tradition and superstition that had prevailed until then. Newspapers with names in which light played a role sprang up in other parts of the archipelago in this period.

To accomplish its ends Tjahaja Sijang published articles and editorials on a great variety of subjects, both secular and religious, ranging from traditional versus Christian conceptions of marriage to economic and social issues such as systems of money and exchange and the use of forced labor. Although founded by, edited and written for by Dutch missionaries, Tjahaja Sijang attracted more and more Indonesian contributors, such as district and village heads, assistants from coffee plantations, school teachers and doctors. The many letters to the editor it published provide an invaluable primary source for probing the thinking of the local population. Increasingly the paper also published news from other regions and countries, thus exposing the people to the wider world. By the end of the period, the newspaper was entirely in Indonesian hands and had shed much of its missionary trappings. It had also grown more political, although never as radical as the nationalist press emerging elsewhere in the islands in the 1920s.

The use of the Malay language as spoken in the Minahasa also makes Tjahaja Sijang interesting from a linguistic point of view. Malay was the obvious choice for publication because it had long been the lingua franca of the region and was in use in education and by the colonial administration. Its use in turn by the paper during more than 50 years no doubt helped form the local variant of the language and promote its adoption by the people of the Minahasa. This linguistic link to the wider Malay-speaking world initiated by Dutch missionaries may then, albeit unintended, have acted as a factor in the process of national integration that was starting to unfold during these years.

Source: “Tjahaja Sijang (The Light of Day), its significance for the History of the Indonesian Local Press,” by A.B. Lapian in Proceedings: Seventh IAHA Conference 22-26 August 1977 . Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University Press 1979. Vol. 2, pp. 910-923

Technical note on the microfiches
The microfiches published here were made for Moran Micropublications by reformatting 35mm microfilms of Tjahaja Sijang originally made by the Perpustakaan Nasional Indonesia, lent to us by the Library of the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies (KITLV) in Leiden, the Netherlands. The films were made under technically less than optimal conditions and some images were of poor quality.
During the reformatting process an effort was made to achieve better quality images, which by and large succeeded. In a few cases, however, the quality could not be enhanced.

Noel Christian A. Moratilla

advocated by the Protestant president and former military officer; rather, it came from a desire to exploit the Philippines’ relatively cheap labor: ‘The exploitation of human resources has become valuable to many foreign companies, an edge used to full advantage by the Philippine government’ (273). The

Timothy Tseng

121 Protestantism in Twentieth-Century Chinese America: The Impact of Transnationalism on the Chinese Diaspora Timothy Tseng Institute for the Study of Asian American Christianity This article examines how an indigenous form of evangelicalism be- came the predominant form of Chinese


Dustin Wiebe


The Balinese Christian minority has struggled to culturally identify themselves as “Balinese.” Beginning in the 1990s, kebalian (Balineseness) has been a marker of ethnic legitimacy in Bali. This notion has been and continues to be couched in a discourse of difference: the Hindu Balinese vis-à-vis the majority Muslim culture of Indonesia. Balinese Christians are thus left out of the picture.

This chapter explores the development of Protestantism in Bali and the gradual independence of the Bali Church from international Christian denominations. To further this goal, Balinese Christian leaders have enacted a policy of “contextualization” whereby Balinese models of architecture, liturgy, and performing arts are privileged. Further, the Balinese dance drama, sendratari, which usually presents excerpts from Hindu epic literature to mass audiences, has been appropriated for the presentation of Christian stories in the formation of a Christian Balineseness. Within this effort, Balinese Christians and Hindus interact, share, and renegotiate their relationship.

Dae YoungRyu

o n . S e e G e o r g e K e n n a n , A m e r i c a n Diplornacy, 1 9 0 0 - 7 9 5 0 ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 5 0 ) , e s p . 3 1 - 3 6 ; P a u l A. V a r g , Missionaries, Chinese a n d Diplomats: The American Protestant M i s s i o n a r y Move- ment in C h i n a , 1 8 9 0 - 1 9 5 2 ( P r i n c e t o


I Nyoman Darma Putra


Near the tourist resort of Nusa Dua in Bali sits a cluster of houses of worship representing five out of the six religions (agama) officially recognised by the Indonesian state. The site, called Puja Mandala, The Domain of Worship, is home to a Buddhist temple, Hindu temple, Catholic Church, Protestant Church, and Islamic mosque. The plan to build this complex was initiated by the national government in the early 1990s, following the construction of international chain hotels in Nusa Dua. Puja Mandala was intended to provide visitors with worship facilities, acknowledge the equality of these official religions, and symbolically express tolerance and harmony between the members of different agama embodied in the national slogan, “unity in diversity.” This chapter investigates the mixed responses to Puja Mandala from the different religious communities in the 15 years of its existence and interprets its significance as an invented icon of religious tolerance.

Yihua Xu

foreign missionaries trained by Union were sent to work in the Near East and India, which were the major mission fields for the Protestant churches in the United States in the latter part of the nine- teenth century. 6 From 1838 to 1884, 141 Union alumni were at points engaged in foreign missionary

Thomas Reilly

Wu Yaozong or Y. T. Wu, as he was known, is a controversial figure in the history of Christianity in China, primarily because of his 1949 role in organizing the Three-Self Protestant Patriotic Movement, the government-sponsored church association. Outside religious circles, however, he is not