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The training of African Christian ministers had been a matter of concern to the erstwhile International Missionary Council, now merged with the World Council of Churches. The reason was that it was believed by some critics that missionaries gave only low priority to theological training. This book recounts how the missionaries actually trained the indigenous leaders in the mission fields.
The study covers the world of British, German, Swiss and American Protestant missionaries as well as that of two Roman Catholic orders in seminary training relating to Anglophone West Africa. The value of the book is that its contents, apart from filling a vacuum in the ecclesiastical history of West Africa, will supply the factual basis upon which an objective evaluation can be given about the efforts of the Western missionary theological training until 1970.

The Catholic Roots of the Protestant Gospel

Encounter between the Middle Ages and the Reformation


Stephen Strehle

The Catholic Roots of the Protestant Gospel is concerned with anti-Catholic bias in Protestantism. It wishes to show that the special concepts of salvation in Protestantism actually arose from Catholic ideas and that these same concepts became distorted or one-sided as Protestantism sought to negate their orthodox Catholic opponents.
Among the doctrines discussed are included the following: justification by faith, assurance of salvation, imputation of righteousness, covenant theology, penal substitution, limited atonement, and supralapsarianism.
The work is filled with historical analysis, theological insights, and ecumenical exhortations. The historian will find a thorough analysis of primary and secondary sources of the Reformation. The theologian will be challenged with fresh approaches to traditional doctrines. The ecumenist will be heartened by its spirit and analysis of subjects that suffer too often from anti-Catholic bias.
World Student Christian Federation Archives, Yale, 1895-1925
A selection from the archives at Yale Divinity School Library

Training ground for future Church leaders
The Federation served as a training ground for many individuals who later became prominent in the worldwide life of the Church, including Bishop Azariah of India, Bishop Honda of Japan, T.Z. Koo of China, Nathan Söderblom of Sweden, J.H. Oldham and William Temple of Great Britain, John R. Mott, and W.A. Visser 't Hooft. The reports and letters included in this collection provide insight into the contexts and issues that informed the development of the Church in North and South America, continental Europe, Great Britain, Ireland, Asia, Australia, South Africa, and other areas. Also, the role of women in the international student Christian movement is well documented.

Correspondence and History
The records of the World Student Christian Federation held by Yale Divinity School Library constitute the official WSCF archives from 1895 to 1925, but go on to document Federation activities through World War II. A unique classification system, modeled after the Dewey Decimal System, was developed specifically for the archives and the library of the WSCF in the early part of the 20th century by Mrs. Grace J. Livingston, and later updated by Miss Ruth Rouse. The materials chosen for inclusion in this collection are from the "300", "800" and "900" sections of this classification system, representing the "Organization", "Correspondence" and "History" sections of the archive. The materials are subdivided by geographical areas.

Formation of the WSCF
The formation of the WSCF was a radical step toward ecumenical cooperation at a time when no other worldwide, non-Roman Catholic Christian agency based on independent national organizations existed. Advances in transportation and communication at the end of the nineteenth century made realization of the WSCF vision feasible. The work was carried out through conferences and committee meetings, publications, exchanges of literature, and visits to national movements by its secretaries and agents. From its purely Protestant origins, it expanded its membership in 1911 to include Orthodox Christians.

New perspectives on world issues
In its early years, the WSCF focused its energies on the formation and stabilization of national student movements, calling students to the Christian faith and the evangelization of the world. The First World War and its aftermath changed the emphases of the Federation as social problems, international relations, and the issues of pacifism and war came to the foreground. In 1920, the WSCF founded European Student Relief, a vast program of social service provided to thousands of students (later to be carried on by an independent body called International Student Service).

Turbulent time in Church History
The WSCF has been an international interpreter and mediator for national student Christian movements through decades of changing issues, goals, and events. Detailed reports from the field have been combined with records of theological reflection to provide fascinating reading and valuable "on the ground" documentation of a turbulent time in the world and in Church history.

Martha Smalley, Yale Divinity School Library & Paul Stuehrenberg, Yale Divinity School Library

Church and School in Early Modern Protestantism

Studies in Honor of Richard A. Muller on the Maturation of a Theological Tradition


Edited by Jordan Ballor, David Sytsma and Jason Zuidema

A great deal of scholarship has too often juxtaposed scholasticism and piety, resulting in misunderstandings of the relationship between Protestant churches of the early modern era and the theology taught in their schools. But more recent scholarship, especially conducted by Richard A. Muller over the last number of decades, has remapped the lines of continuity and discontinuity in the relation of church and school. This research has produced a more methodologically nuanced and historically accurate representation of church and school in early modern Protestantism. Written by leading scholars of early modern Protestant theology and history and based on research using the most relevant original sources, this collection seeks to broaden our understanding of how and why clergy were educated to serve the church.

Contributors include: Yuzo Adhinarta, Willem van Asselt, Irena Backus, Jordan J. Ballor, J. Mark Beach, Andreas Beck, Joel R. Beeke, Lyle D. Bierma, Raymond A. Blacketer, James E. Bradley, Dariusz M. Bryćko, Amy Nelson Burnett, Emidio Campi, Heber Carlos de Campos Jr, Kiven Choy, R. Scott Clark, Paul Fields, John V. Fesko, Paul Fields, W. Robert Godfrey, Alan Gomes, Albert Gootjes, Chad Gunnoe, Aza Goudriaan, Fred P. Hall, Byung-Soo (Paul) Han, Nathan A. Jacobs, Frank A. James III, Martin Klauber, Henry Knapp, Robert Kolb, Mark J. Larson, Brian J. Lee, Karin Maag, Benjamin T.G. Mayes, Andrew M. McGinnis, Paul Mpindi, Adriaan C. Neele, Godfried Quaedtvlieg, Sebastian Rehnman, Todd Rester, Gregory D. Schuringa, Herman Selderhuis, Donald Sinnema, Keith Stanglin, David Steinmetz, David Sytsma, Yudha Thianto, John L. Thompson, Carl Trueman, Theodore G. Van Raalte, Cornelis Venema, Timothy Wengert, Reita Yazawa, Jeongmo Yoo, and Jason Zuidema.


Johannes van den Berg

Edited by Jan de Bruijn, Pieter Holtrop and Ernestine Van der Wall

The religious history of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Protestantism was marked by a twofold movement. On the one hand there were attempts to consolidate and, if necessary, to reaffirm the heritage of the Reformation; on the other hand, we meet a growing critical evaluation of the legacy of mainstream orthodox thought, which could lead to a process of gradual renewal and reorientation, but also to forms of more radical and controversial criticism. Conservative as well as critical tendencies can be discerned in the religious landscape on both sides of the North Sea. In spite of differences in the historical framework and spiritual culture, the developments in Great-Britain and on the Continent often present remarkable parallels, and the water of the North Sea was not too deep for creative interaction.
This volume contains a number of essays which deal with various aspects of English and Dutch church history and theology in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Special attention is given to the problems surrounding the Calvinist doctrine of predestination; to English Puritanism and its impact on the Netherlands; to Jewish-Christian relations and polemics in the seventeenth century; to seventeenth-century millenarianism, in particular in the circle of the Cambridge Platonists; to the attitute of Dutch Reformed theologians to the Church of England, to eighteenth-century English and Dutch orientalist studies and to the development of enlightened ideas in the circles of English and Dutch Protestantism.

Andrew T. Coates

Introduction: Methods and Key Terms for the Study of Protestant Images What is Protestant art? To many people, this question might seem like a non-starter. Protestants generally prefer to portray themselves as “people of the Word” rather than people of the image. That is, Protestant self

Raiser, Konrad

1.1. “Protestantism” is a general term for the form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation. It carries a specific reference to the “Protestatio” that the Evangelical princes presented at the Second Diet of Speyer in 1529. After that event the opponents of the Reformation

Anthony Carroll

Abstract: This entry discusses the Protestant Ethic thesis of Max Weber. The two major principles of the ethic are the new understanding of the universality of calling developed by Martin Luther and the doctrine of predestination of John Calvin. The secularization of the concept of “asceticism” is

Virginia Garrard-Burnett and Carlos Garma Navarro

Social Sciences and Missions 20 (2007) 99-116 Social Sciences and Missions Sciences sociales et missions Protestantism(s) and Mayan Worldviews in Chiapas and Guatemala in the Context of Civil Violence Virginia Garrard-Burnett University of Texas, Austin, USA Carlos Garma