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Inga Merkyte, Søren Albek and Klavs Randsborg

cracked in search for the even more nutritionally valuable oily seeds. Shells can be used as fuel and are still a common energy source in forges. It also can be speculated that palm wine was tapped being a rather straightforward ‘invention’ (Okereke 1982), but with very potent social implications

Enza Elena Spinapolice, Andrea Zerboni, Michael Meyer and Donatella Usai

, Dordrecht . Gasse , F. 2000 . Hydrological changes in the African tropics since the Last Glacial Maximum . Quaternary Science Reviews 19 , 189 - 211 . Geological Map of Sudan 2004 . Ministry of Energy & Mining. Geological Research Authority of the Sudan ( GRAS ) , Berlin . Guichard , J

Edwin N. Wilmsen, Anne Griffiths, David Killick and Phenyo Thebe

, and siltstone. The source of these sediments was mainly from erosion of the Archaean lithologies summarized above; the basal conglomerate is interpreted as a debris-flow deposit in a fluviatile environment of decreasing depositional flow energy (Mapeo et al. 2004: 7, 11-13). The Moeng Formation

A.B. Babalola, Th. Rehren, A. Ige and S. McIntosh

JEOL JSM6610LV scanning electron microscope ( SEM ) and their chemical composition determined by Energy Dispersive Spectrometry ( EDS ) using an Oxford Instrument Aztec detector. The areas selected for analysis were the outer glaze, the crucible fabric near that outer glaze, the crucible fabric near


Raoul Laïbi, Didier N’Dah and Paul Adderley

limitations to the productivity of the landscape in the provision of environmental goods and services, such as agricultural produce, are caused by the underlying geology and the soils that develop upon these materials. The high-energy fluvial environment within the Niger valley and that of its tributaries

Matthew V. Caruana

trajectories limit the amount of possible flakes produced per core (see Fig. 10). This would also likely result in a need for increased raw material collection. Overall, the cost-efficiency of flaking at swt is more expensive in terms of energy and raw material when compared to the opposite trends at

Ochre Resources, Behavioural Complexity and Regional Patterns in the Howiesons Poort

New Insights From Klasies River Main Site, South Africa

Laure Dayet Bouillot, Sarah Wurz and Floréal Daniel

3324, scale 1:250 000 , Geological Survey, Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs , Pretoria . Tribolo , C. , Mercier , N. , Douville , E. , Joron , J.-L. , Reyss , J.-L. , Rufer , D. , Cantin , N. , Lefrais , Y. , Miller , C.E. , Porraz , G. , Parkington , J


Sam Nixon

existence of complex architectural forms, multi-element architectural units with complex articulation of the built space, and expenditure of energy on such features as floor surfaces. The most complete form is the excavated example from Birnin Lafiya (Trench 3/10), where multi-element architectural spaces


Olivier Gosselain and Anne Haour

faced by the inhabitants of medieval Dendi were not related so much to warfare as to the high-energy fluvial environment which acted as a constraint on settlement location due to seasonal flooding risks (Laïbi et al., this volume). As we have said, the bulk of our archaeological evidence in Dendi

Michael Brass

that “waste energy” is an important component in explaining material-behavioural variation which utilises and stabilises population levels under the local resource carrying capacities (Wenke 1989, 1991). Environment perturbations cause resource fluctuations, which impact upon the geographic positioning