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This volume focuses on the origin of the early Tamil poetical canon, which constitutes a set of specific subjects, images, principles of arrangement of basic poetical themes which are called tiṇai. The author proceeds from the idea of a Russian scholar O. Freidenberg that literary forms ‘originate from anti-literary material rather than their own archetypes’.

An outline of mythological concepts, prevalent in ancient Tamil culture, is presented, alongside main mythological figures - Murukaṉ, Māl, Cūr, Koṟṟavai, Vaḷḷi. A controversial notion of aṉanku, especially in its aspect of an inner female energy, is analyzed. In addition, the author explores the panegyric art of the Tamil kings’ singers, describing such singers and performers while discussing the idea of ritual character.

The elements of five canonical tiṇai-themes of the akam poetry are examined, where the use of ethnological data suggests that the themes are based on some behaviour patterns which are meant to ensure a reliable control over the female energy. Finally, the text raises the problem of earlier poetic forms that consolidated the tiṇai system.
In this study the author considers the functions and significance attached in ancient India to gold in all its aspects. Among these is the belief that gold is or represents light or the sun; is essentially identical to fire, fiery or brilliant energy, truth, ritual exactitude, prestige, royalty; is regarded as a symbol of life and human spirit, of purity and incorruptibility; its function as amulets and talismans; its relations with the gods; the various uses made of it in rites and ceremonies (soma and animal sacrifices, royal and funeral rites, and so on); ritual utensilia made of gold, symbolic actions transferring its inherent power and finally, its use as a means of purification and expiation.
This study leads to a better understanding of many Vedic texts, of various details of the ancient Indian sacrificial ritual, theology (including, for example, the deification of the sacrificer), speculative thought, cosmogony, of the significance of figures such as the golden goose, the golden Purusa and Hiraṇyagarbha.

distantly, for § 14, see Śuka § 16 (verse 5): jīvan mr̥taḥ kas tu? nirudyamo yaḥ . Tibetan understands here “lack of energy directed toward the truth.” 60 10.7 kasmād bhayam iha maraṇād andhād api ko viśiṣyate rāgī | kaḥ śūro yo lalanā- locanabāṇair na vivyathitaḥ || 7 || andhād api, (C), D, F, H, K, L1, L

In: Indo-Iranian Journal

12.68.29: durbhikṣam āviśed rāṣṭraṃ yadi rājā na pālayet , “[w]ere a king not standing guard […] famine would spread throughout the country.” MBh 12.70.22: vyādhayaś ca bhavanty atra mriyante cāgatāyuṣaḥ , “There are diseases, and the energy of life leaves people and they die.” Note also Rām. 1

In: Indo-Iranian Journal

much of his energy to this joumal, and the most laborious editorial task - the reviews - he has fulfilled single-handedly, in addition to his editorship for Tibetan, Buddhism and Indian philosophy. He has himself contributed nearly 400 reviews, which have become one of the journal's characteristics and

In: Indo-Iranian Journal

complex than in the two Indian epics. Thus, without a proper understanding of the divine weapons the Indian epics cannot be fully appreciated. However, the divine weapons cannot be properly understood without a comprehensive examination of the concept of tejas or “fiery energy.” Embedded within the

In: Indo-Iranian Journal

F . B. J. K U I P E R Several m o n t h s ago F. B. J. K u i p e r expressed the wish t o relinquish his e d i t o r s h i p in favour o f M. Witzel. Since t h e f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e I N D O - I R A N I A N J O U R N A L in 1956 he has d e v o t e d m u c h o f his t i m e and energy t

In: Indo-Iranian Journal

a ‘commencement,’ however, Hans’s retirement from the University of Groningen and from the editorship of the IIJ will mark not only a new phase for the journal but most importantly a new chance for Hans to dedicate himself with renewed energy to his ongoing research. We also take this

In: Indo-Iranian Journal

energies ( ´ saktayah . ) of the powers ( vibhav ¯ ah . ) or subtle elements ( tanm ¯ atr ¯ ah . ) which gave rise to it. For example, the JS describes the purification of the earth element as follows: turya´sr ¯ a ˙ m p¯ıt ¯ abh ¯ a ˙ m bh ¯ umi ˙ m cintayed vajral ¯ añcit ¯ am / ´ sabd ¯ adyaih

In: Indo-Iranian Journal

much time and energy and we must be grateful to the editors for having published this book which is essential reading for everybody interested in cross-cultural studies and Indian philosophy and religion. 4 Jansz Crescent J.W. DE JONG Manuka ACT 2603 Australia

In: Indo-Iranian Journal