This chapter focuses on China’s search for energy security, especially in the oil and gas sector, and on the impact of this search on China’s relations with the European Union (EU). It places the Chinese energy security strategy within the context of the country’s economic reform program by examining the political dynamics behind developments in the energy sector. The study outlines some key initiatives China has taken to ensure regular and cost-effective oil and gas supplies. It surveys China’s energy security policy and the institutional structure which supports it. China’s search for energy security has led the PRC to develop closer political and military ties with a number of countries in Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia; Chinese state-owned oil and gas companies have invested billions of dollars in the development of energy assets there. These efforts have been backed up by Chinese civilian and military aid flows to some strife-torn countries in Africa. This is seen by many European politicians and EU officials as ‘undermining’ their efforts to improve quality of governance and respect for human rights in those countries. This chapter examines the differences between the European Union and China over the situation in the Darfur region of Sudan, a country in which China has made significant investments in nearly all aspects of the oil industry.
Against the background of a changing Sino-Soviet relationship, from 1949 until the collapse of communism in the USSR in 1991, this chapter analyses Russo-Chinese relations in the post-Soviet period, focusing on the Yeltsin and Putin eras. It assesses the reasons for closer ties and also examines the constraints posed by Russia’s geopolitics and energy security policies on Russo-Chinese relations in the early 21st century and the implications for the European Union and beyond.
This volume brings together the best of contemporary critical analysis of EU-China relations, offered here by an international team of policy analysts, academics and practitioners. The fifteen chapters assembled in this book represent a wide-ranging investigation of the development and framework of EU-China relations and its wider geo-political context. This includes an examination of key areas of concern, such as human rights, economic cooperation, energy security, sports, maritime safety and media policy. Many aspects of EU-China relations covered in this title have, until now, not been available for systematic scrutiny by a wider public. Importantly, this collection presents an examination of the significance of China’s relations with selected global partners – such as the US, Russia, India and Central Asia – for the further evolution of Sino-EU interaction. It should be read by anyone interested in EU foreign policies, the future of China-EU strategic partnership, China’s place in the world, and the development of a multi-polar world order.
“Make the past serve the present!” Thus goes Mao Zedong’s slogan on how to appropriate the ancient in revolutionary times. In my previous studies, I have argued that the Chinese writers’ engagement with the ancient gave rise to a platform of “necessary anachronism” in cultural transformation. This new project carries further this argument and draws attention to the transmediality in the leftist historical imagination. From the 1940s through the 1970s, the revolutionary representations of the ancient were simultaneously poetic, theatrical, intellectual, and cinematic, to say nothing about the calligraphic and visual adaptations they elicited. This current of reinventing the ancient manifested itself in the historical drama in wartime China and found a coda in the anti-colonial leftist cinematic adaptation of the historical play Qu Yuan in 1970s Hong Kong. Starting with a broader theoretical intervention into the issue of media, this paper emphasizes that the transmedial reinterpretation of the ancient in fact formed a mode of mediation between revolution and history, between politics and aesthetics. In the cultural regime of China’s long revolution, the transference or translation of the allegorical-anachronistic energies among different media was a key site of signification, contestation, and crisis.
Both China and India are important partners for the European Union (EU) because of their demography, large domestic markets of a billion plus each, significant energy-consumption patterns, and because they are vital for resolving regional problems as well as global issues. However, Beijing has been - and continues to be - more central to European interests than New Delhi because of its political clout, its economic potential, the substantially higher economic stakes, and trade. As a result, there is a variable engagement of the Union towards the two rising Asian powers and a qualitative difference in the attention and focus given by the European Union to China than India. This chapter is divided into four sections. The first section begins with a discussion of how the EU perceives India and China. The second section discusses Indian perceptions of EU-China relations. The third one highlights some similarities in the Chinese and Indian approaches towards the EU. The concluding section outlines several lessons that India can learn from China’s engagement of the EU.
model soldier used the image of a little screw being welded into a big machine to express his psychic interiority and to articulate socialist ethics; the editorial department of China Youth utilized the symbol of an atomic bomb unleashing explosive energy to affirm the power of political consciousness
importance of artistic performance unleashed in Chen a renewed enthusiasm for his work and a burst of creative energy. He began to adopt bold and fresh methods to portray Huang Shiren onstage, hoping to disclose “the ruthless nature of the despotic landlord class,” to arouse hatred among audiences, and to
the image of a little girl holding a ball printed on the teapot. Hot with anger, he starts to wave a palm-leaf fan with great energy, but this soon frustrates him when he notices the embroidered image of a female gymnast on the fan. Much to his annoyance, the image seems to come alive with his fanning
portrait relegate the figure’s feminine qualities and instead emphasize her strength, energy, and spirit. A blue-and-white checkered pattern garment, a northern woman’s hairstyle, healthy-looking suntanned complexion, clear facial outline, thick, black eyebrows, and bright eyes beaming with enthusiasm all
the anarchic state of warring individuals, at least temporarily and implicitly. In China, the principle ( li ) was never alienated fully from the active energy ( qi ). The ‘realistic’ attitude prevailing in Chinese culture is based on the Confucian recognition of man’s emotional reality and the