possible portent of British power. “Let us not repose too confidently in the magnitude of our present power,” Briggs wrote; “the perusal of the pages of Indian history will teach us a lesson we should never forget.” 62 Chief among those lessons, Briggs indicated, is the “energy” with which India
Edited by Jørn Borup and Marianne Qvortrup Fibiger
Eastspirit: Transnational Spirituality and Religious Circulation in East and West describes and analyses such concepts, practices and traditions in their new ‘Western’ and global contexts as well as in their transformed expressions and reappropriations in religious traditions and individualized spiritualities ‘back in the East’ within the framework of mutual interaction and circulation, regionally and globally.
Paolo Santangelo and Gábor Boros
Dujiangyan irrigation system of more than 2000 years history is a symbol of originality of Chinese ancestors both in its conception and project mode. It is still working well and benefit Chengdu Plain nowadays while other comparable water conservancy projects of the same or later age have vanished and been forgotten. More than just a world-famous cultural heritage, it shows the harmonious relationship between man and nature. And it also reveals us how to solve problems in the era of economic globalization, such as the constantly silt up of the dams, the exhaustion of the energy and the crisis of the deterioration of ecosystem. The inspirations it gives us range from technology to humanities, from economy to various aspects in social life. In a word, Dujiangyan irrigation system demonstrates the wisdom and creativity of Chinese people and has a universal significance despite the change of time and space.
Ecological Marxists argue that Marx forged a view of nature compatible with more recent models of environmentalism. John Bellamy Foster argues that Marx ascribed an ecological value to nature by asserting a co-evolution between man and nature. James O’Connor presents a more nuanced view in which Marx at best defended a conservationist defense of nature. I argue that such ecological views of Marx tend to overlook his abandonment of an ontology of nature as a totality of relations among physical objects with respect to their interactions and mutual preservation and order. He followed Kant in reducing nature, or the physical world, effectively to a regulative notion, thus reducing its value to a simply a heuristic one for judgments about and actions towards objects. But he also radicalized this reduction by envisaging nature only as a material field of fungible and consumable things, such that each thing is a mere locus of energy or force that human labor cannot substantively perfect but only change to a function. Labor in this view creates new arrangements of natural things for a singular ultimate purpose: the formation of associations of free labor. I conclude that Marx’s thinking thus cannot be utilized to support an environmental philosophy, such as deep ecology or eco-socialism, that would posit any intrinsic value to nature.
is fully developed in our body, we will achieve a capacity for intuition which helps us directly penetrate the truth. Biological powers and intuition are termed respectively Qi 气 and shen. Qi is often translated as vital energy in English. According to Daoism, our body is made up of Qi . Qi in our
have any energy to spare after the performance of moral duties, they should use it to study literature and the arts” (Ibid.). Confucius thought one should first fulfill his moral duties such as filial piety, respect, faith, and benevolence, and only then continue to learn knowledge from books
resolution of the theoretical antitheses is only possible in a practical way, by virtue of the practical energy of men. Their resolution is therefore by no means merely a problem of knowledge, but a real problem of life, which philosophy could not solve precisely because it conceived this problem as merely a
their own cultivation of virtue and should set examples to be followed by subordinates, so as to bring the whole organization to a higher level of virtue. This makes it so that the highest leader of the organization does not need to expend energy dealing with the minutiae of LI Honglei 80
Cui Tao and Guo Qiyong
abroad, to be cautious in giving promises and punctual in keeping them, to have kindly feelings towards everyone, but seek the intimacy of the Good. If, when all that is done, he has any energy to spare, then let him study the polite arts. 7 (Ibid., “Xue’er”) Zi Lu asked about the qualities of a true