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Charles R. Steen

Margaret of Parma: A Life presents a woman who had a vital part in the political dramas of Reformation Europe. A natural child of Charles V, she was educated in the courts of Brussels, Florence, Rome, and Parma, and then was thrust into religious and political tumult in the Netherlands, where she showed ability and character.
At eight she was moved to Italy to be educated and then married to Alessandro de’Medici. Alessandro’s murder enabled Charles to marry her to Ottavio Farnese, the grandson of Pope Pius III. The union gave her years of experience in Rome. Her father’s abdication took Margaret back to the Netherlands as regent for Philip II. His authoritarian rule and the Calvinist uprising rendered the position horrifying. When rebuked and replaced by the Duke of Alba, Margaret returned to Italy as ruler of Abruzzo.
The character of Margaret assured her importance as she dealt with essential issues of life and rule. This biography reveals a woman dedicated to compromise and conciliation in public affairs.


Edited by Carole Cusack and Alex Norman

The cultural products of new religions and spiritualities are frequently ignored or dismissed within academia, often stemming from a hesitation to acknowledge these movements as genuine. This volume explores the impact of new religions upon cultural production, exemplifying the theological and spiritual principles of particular movements and demonstrating their substantial impact on wider society. Contributions explore the realms of music, architecture, food, art, books, films, video games, and more. This scholarship will be of interest to those who wish to explore the gamut of modern religious expression, and those who wish to broaden their knowledge of the spiritual origins of human culture.

Yuting Wang

accelerated during the years after the Arab Spring, producing the third wave of Chinese influx. Economic exchanges between China and the uae have been fruitful as the Chinese government seeks to protect its investment in the region and secure its energy supplies in the Middle East. China is also keen on

Hung-yok Ip

, he stressed the elimination of habit energies: “Those influenced by habit energies are ordinary men, and those who free themselves from the influence of habit energies are saints” (ibid.). Xuyun admitted that the purging of habit energies was not so straightforward. He observed that many monastics

Xenia Zeiler

about the goddess Kali was inserted in four releases: “Goddess Kali, who personifies Shakti or divine energy and considered the goddess of time and change, is widely worshipped in Hinduism.” (Zed 2, Zed 4, Zed 5, Zed 6). 3 According to Zed, Hindus urge the removal of such inappropriate image

Jessica Gall Myrick and Suzannah Evans Comfort

.A. ( 2015 , October 22). Religion and Views on Climate and Energy Issues . Retrieved from . Gecewicz C. ( 2017, January 18 ) U.S. Catholics, non-Catholics continue to view Pope Francis favorably

Mark McLeister

Contemporary China . Leiden : Brill . Economist . 2013 . “ The East is Grey .” Economist , August 10 . (accessed January 23, 2015) . Ethnic and Religious

Rachel Xiaohong Zhu

, more energy and enthusiasm are evoked for church ministry. In Ningbo Diocese, Auxiliary Bishop Rev. Jin said the ccrmc groups are popular in most of the parishes, especially in the traditional groups such as band, the hospitality team, the visiting team, choir, catechism teachers, and Sunday school

John Dyer

users tend to spend much of their cognitive energy and time scanning screens for user interface components and this scanning becomes so habitual that it influences what readers do when their eyes finally meet the desired text ( Liu, 2005 ; Mangen, 2008 ). Finally, based on his interviews with readers