The Byzantine world underwent a remarkable recovery of intellectual energy in the period following the recovery of Constantinople in 1261. The reaction of the emperors and their entourage of well-educated high officials to their political disasters was a deliberate revival of the glories of ancient Greek culture. The main subject of this book is the preservation and dissemination by this learned elite of such ancient literature, philosophy and science as still survived then, the development of editorial techniques which resulted in more complete and less corrupt texts, and their improvement buy the addition of commentaries and other innovations.
The field of premodern environmental history (the study of the complex and ever-changing interrelationship between human beings and the world around them prior to the Industrial Revolution) has grown vigorously over the past two decades, in no small part due to the energy and expertise of Richard C. Hoffmann (York University, Canada). In this collection, historians of medieval and early modern Europe and social scientists with a sensitivity to the use of historical information present their current research in honor of Richard C. Hoffmann's retirement from teaching. The result is a panoramic and dynamic view of the state of the field of premodern environmental history by leading practitioners. The papers are organized under the broad themes of "Premodern People and the Natural World" and "Aquatic Ecosystems and Human Economies".
Contributors are Richard W. Unger, Paolo Squatriti, William Chester Jordan, Petra J.E.M. van Dam, Verena Winiwarter, Maryanne Kowaleski, Constance H. Berman, Pierre Claude Reynard, Wim Van Neer, and Anton Ervynck.
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, the Crown of Aragon was among the most active powers of the Mediterranean world. This volume examines the attempt by its ruling dynasty to ‘rationalize’ its court so as to expand the monarchy’s ability to gather and deploy resources in support of royal ambitions. Because change in medieval institutions, however, is based as much on exigency and personality as on political theory and program, this volume also focuses on the way in which the processes of transformation functioned at a human level. The book explores the quotidian operations of the various bureaus of the court, as well as their social milieu, paying particular attention to the correlation between programmatic ideal and reality.
This collection of essays, papers originally delivered at conferences in Bonn and Boston, show in a detailed way the tone and nature of philosophical and theological issues and arguments at the University of Paris in the early fourteenth century. They touch on a large number of authors and a broad spectrum of subjects and present these discussions with regard to the intellectual framework set by the earlier Parisian generation of Thomas Aquinas, Henry of Ghent and Godfrey of Fontaine. It becomes evident that the principal contributors to the new intellectual energy in early fourteenth-century discussions at Paris are Meister Eckhart, John Duns Scotus, Hervaeus Natalis, Durandus of St.-Pourçain, Walter Burley and Petrus Aureoli.
Introduction 1 World Order – Measuring and Weighing 2 Producing Energy – Water and Wind, Wood 3 Extraction of Raw Materials 4 Agricultural Technology 5 Production and Processing – Metal, Textiles, Leather 6 Paper and Printing 7 Transport and Trade By Land By Water 8 Human Beings and the Environment
While under the control of the Franks in the twelfth century, the Holy Land saw an enormous amount of energy and resources directed toward building, rebuilding, and renovating structures connected with pilgrimage destinations. These monuments contain many characteristics that recall contemporary
6. Technology Artes mechanicae New Frontiers: Scientia naturalis and the Scientific Agenda of the Artist-Engineers in the Renaissance World Order – Measuring and Weighing Producing Energy – Water and Wind, Wood Extraction of Raw Materials Agricultural Technology Production and Processing – Metal
, Social Reality, and the Energy of Concepts It should be clear by now that Fregean concepts are better suited than Wittgensteinian concepts for an intellectual history that takes the autonomy of concepts as well as their causal efficacy seriously. I will have more to say about causal efficacy below, but
This book, newly revised and updated, examines the Eastern Church's theology of icons chiefly on the basis of the acta of the Seventh Ecumenical Council of 787.
The political circumstances leading to the outbreak of the iconclast controversy in the eighth century are discussed in detail, but the main emphasis is on the theological arguments and assumptions of the council participants. Major themes include the nature of tradition, the relationship between image and reality, and the place of christology.
Ultimately the argument over icons was about the accessibility of the divine. Icons were held by the iconophiles to communicate a deifying grace which raised the believer to participation in the life of God.