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Oil and Security Policies

Saudi Arabia, 1950-2012


Islam Yasin Qasem

With one quarter of proven oil reserves and the largest oil production in the world, Saudi Arabia has been at the center of world politics. Its vast oil resources have been utilized in various ways to maximize internal and external security. While oil revenue allowed the Saudi state to buy off legitimacy at home and abroad, the Saudi state exploited oil supply to either forge alliances with or pressure consuming and producing countries. By providing an insightful account of how oil resources shaped Saudi security policies since the mid-twentieth century, Islam Y. Qasem offers a timely contribution to the study of oil politics and the interrelationship between economic interdependence and security.

Mangarella, Joseph N.

negative international publicity and complicated efforts to reboot the faltering energy sector. The government clung to gas production in the hope of rebalancing the economy and warding off allegations of human rights abuse.

Treydte, Klaus-Peter

the US and Europe while soaring energy prices resulted in strong inflationary pressures. However, the real shock was the reduction in the preferential sugar prices in the EU, which forced the sugar industry to readjust both quickly and thoroughly.

Seibert, Gerhard

infrastructure, particularly renewable energy sources.

Hanlon, Joseph

Little happened on the domestic political scene, apart from the notable performance of a new political party. Foreign policy played out mainly at the economic interface, with major foreign interests featuring prominently. Mozambique’s leap to become a major mineral-energy exporter dominated its

Hanlon, Joseph

president from Joaquim Chissano, whose attempt to stand again as candidate for election was blocked by Frelimo. GDP growth continues at more than 8% per year and there was considerable further expansion of the mineral and energy sector, but more than half the population live in extreme poverty and

Optenhögel, Uwe and Treydte, Klaus-Peter

protocol with the EU and a dramatic increase in energy (oil) and raw material prices highlighted the dependence on external factors. In foreign policy, Mauritius continued to play an active role as chief negotiator for the ACP countries with the EU and chaired the regional organisation, SADC.

Hirt, Nicole

shortage of basic goods and energy.

Abbink, Jon

, large-scale energy projects and commercial mega-plantation schemes remained contested. Resentment about long-ruling presidents and dominant parties increased, notably among the restive youth, who felt blocked from employment and advancement. Income growth and opportunities were largely reserved for a

Southall, Roger

minister of energy, meteorology and water affairs. Although tensions were patched up by a cabinet reshuffle, fears that the coalition would prove unstable remained.