Saudi Arabia, 1950-2012
Islam Yasin Qasem
Mangarella, Joseph N.
negative international publicity and complicated efforts to reboot the faltering energy sector. The government clung to gas production in the hope of rebalancing the economy and warding off allegations of human rights abuse.
the US and Europe while soaring energy prices resulted in strong inflationary pressures. However, the real shock was the reduction in the preferential sugar prices in the EU, which forced the sugar industry to readjust both quickly and thoroughly.
infrastructure, particularly renewable energy sources.
Little happened on the domestic political scene, apart from the notable performance of a new political party. Foreign policy played out mainly at the economic interface, with major foreign interests featuring prominently. Mozambique’s leap to become a major mineral-energy exporter dominated its
president from Joaquim Chissano, whose attempt to stand again as candidate for election was blocked by Frelimo. GDP growth continues at more than 8% per year and there was considerable further expansion of the mineral and energy sector, but more than half the population live in extreme poverty and
Optenhögel, Uwe and Treydte, Klaus-Peter
protocol with the EU and a dramatic increase in energy (oil) and raw material prices highlighted the dependence on external factors. In foreign policy, Mauritius continued to play an active role as chief negotiator for the ACP countries with the EU and chaired the regional organisation, SADC.
shortage of basic goods and energy.
, large-scale energy projects and commercial mega-plantation schemes remained contested. Resentment about long-ruling presidents and dominant parties increased, notably among the restive youth, who felt blocked from employment and advancement. Income growth and opportunities were largely reserved for a
minister of energy, meteorology and water affairs. Although tensions were patched up by a cabinet reshuffle, fears that the coalition would prove unstable remained.