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Angelica Bonfanti and Francesca Romanin Jacur

Introduction A great variety of energy-related activities is carried out at sea. First, one may think of the exploitation of traditional energy sources (such as oil, gas and minerals) and second, of the renewable energy sources (such as wind, solar, tidal and wave). The growing demand for

Energy from the Sea

An International Law Perspective on Ocean Energy

Edited by Nigel Bankes and Seline Trevisanut

One of the main challenges of our time is to be able to guarantee energy supply at a reasonable price. Policy makers, international institutions and the private sector increasingly look to the oceans as a significant source of energy. The Law of the Sea provides the legal framework within which any maritime activity is performed and strikes a balance between the multiple activities that can take place simultaneously in the same maritime zone. This volume addresses some of the main legal challenges raised by the expansion of the ocean energy sector and its consequences for the relevant international normative and institutional framework. Some of the major themes explored include energy sources and the competition for marine space, energy security, private actors and corporate social responsibility, fragmentation or integration, evolution and reinforcement of international law and liability.


E.D. Brown

This first book in a three-volume work on Sea-Bed Energy and Minerals: The International Legal Regime is concerned with the law governing the exploitation of energy and mineral resources in two quite different sub-marine areas. Volume 1 deals with the areas within the limits of national jurisdiction, that is, all of the submarine areas extending from the coast to the seaward limit of the continental shelf. As its subtitle indicates, this volume is predominantly concerned with The Continental Shelf.
Although the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea has still not entered into force, and, indeed, may not do so for many years for some of the major maritime powers, its adoption in 1982 did, nonetheless, usher in a period of relative stability in the rules governing the areas within national jurisdiction, including, in particular, the continental shelf. However, being the creatures of compromise, some of its rules are undeniably vague and it has been left to State practice and international courts and tribunals to develop these rules further, especially those relating to the delimitation of the continental shelf between neighbouring States.
Volume 1 provides an analysis of the rules of conventional and custromary law in the light of this practice.
Volume 2, on Sea-Bed Mining, deals with the area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, that is, the submarine area lying seaward of the outer limit of the continental shelf. Volume 3, which will be published at the same time as Volume 2, will provide Documents, Tables and Bibliography relating to the subject matter of the first two volumes.


Edited by Myron Nordquist, John Norton Moore and Alexander Skaridov

The economic health of the global economy is directly tied to international energy policies, and none are more important than those of Russia, which is now the world’s largest petroleum export nation. At the same time, oil and gas are finite resources and new sources of supply must be found. It is certain that the Arctic will be one of the areas of greatest interest. Wherever the energy resource originates, the law of the sea regime will be critical in the movement from source to market. Thus, this book on International Energy Policy, the Arctic and the Law of the Sea is especially timely. The content is based on presentations made in St. Petersburg, Russia in June, 2004. The perspectives of Russia, China and the United States are discussed in depth by some of the world’s foremost authorities. The special significance of the Caspian Sea routes for export and the consequences of the opening of a Northwest Passage due to global warming are among the unique issues covered in this volume.

Richard Barnes

renewable energy with the growth in offshore wind farms. Invariably, energy resources will be shipped by sea, or transmitted through undersea pipelines and cables. The exploration, production and supply of energy from the sea have had an impact on all other ocean activities. This means that marine spaces


E.D. Brown

This three-volume work is concerned with the rules of international law governing the exploitation of the energy and mineral resources to be found on and under the sea-bed.
Volume 3 complements the previous two volumes by making available a selection of the principal documents referred to in volume 1 The Continental Shelf and volume 2 Sea-Bed Mining. The documents are arranged in three Parts. Part 1 includes document on the continental shelf and the exclusive economic zone; Part 2 covers the United Nations regime for the Area beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, including the landmark Mining Code adopted in July 2000; and Part 3 has a selection of national legislation on sea-bed mining and related co-ordinating treaties. Also included is a table showing the status, as at 1 October 2000, of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982 and the 1994 Agreement relating to the Implementation of the UN Convention.
This volume will be a useful practical tool for academics, practitioners, and policy-makers concerned with the legal regime governing sea-bed energy and minerals and presents a carefully selected set of documents indispensable for a full understanding of the regimes analysed in the earlier volumes.

Nigel Bankes and Seline Trevisanut

David Leary and Miguel Esteban

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI: 10.1163/092735209X12499043518269 Th e International Journal of Marine and Coastal Law 24 (2009) 617–651 THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MARINE AND COASTAL LAW Climate Change and Renewable Energy from the Ocean and Tides: Calming the Sea of