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Edited by Vladimir Tikhonov and Owen Miller

Children's Leisure Activities in Russia, 1920s-1940s
Building the Lenin Mausoleum in Snow Bricks: Organising Children's Games in Pre-War Soviet Russia

The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries witnessed an upsurge of interest among Russian intellectuals in play as a psychological and pedagogical phenomenon. As the Italian psychologist Giovanni Amonio Colozza, whose treatise was translated into Russian in 1909, put it, play represented 'the free and central expression of those interior things that need to be outwardly expressed'. This view of play as central to childhood development was also influenced by the work of James Sully and G. Stanley Hall, and other members of the 'child study' or 'paidology' movement. The 'mother's diaries' and 'father's diaries' extensively published by Russians in the 1910s and early 1920s regularly noted children's games as part of their record of day-to-day development, and after the Revolution, much work on recording games was also done by the Experimental Stations of Narkompros.
This psychological or anthropological view of play was only one among various approaches, however, and after the Revolution, and particularly from 1925, it began to be vigorously challenged by an instrumental view of play as a central element in peer-group socialisation and, more particularly, in learning about future adult roles. Play was used, as methodological guides for nursery-school teachers indicate, in order to inculcate 'politically correct' attitudes. Baby dolls and fashion dolls were regarded with disapproval, because they reinforced traditional gender stereotypes and, in the second case, frivolity; dolls representing members of 'national' (i.e. ethnic) minority groups were given the stamp of approval, since they could be used to tutor children in internationalism. Children were taught new variants of familiar games, such as constructing the Lenin Mausoleum with snow bricks dyed red, rather than houses or igloos, or playing Co-operative Shop and Collective Farm Market using wooden models and building blocks. Even before the Revolution, efforts to provide children with 'rational leisure' had begun (an example was the children's summer playground run by volunteers on Petrograd Side, St Petersburg, in the 1910s); now, the Pioneer and Komsomol movement devoted huge energy to efforts to 'clean up' children's games in the streets and courtyards of cities, and also among village children. Pioneers themselves were used as a 'revolutionary avant-garde' to propagandise new kinds of game among 'unorganised children': building bird-boxes instead of robbing nests, playing 'Communists' against 'Fascists' instead of 'Cossacks and Robbers', engaging in healthy and beneficial 'active games' instead of taking part in games of chance such as 'heads or tails' or playing cards for money.
The movement for 'socialisation through play' and 'rational leisure' was documented in many hundreds of publications, both in periodicals (for example, Doshkol'noe obrazovanie [Pre-School Education], Prosveshchenie na transporte [Education in Railway Schools], Na puti k novoi shkole [On the Road to the New School], and Pedologiya), and in separate short books and brochures. The selection here, taken from materials held in the Russian State Library and in the Ushinsky Pedagogical Library in Moscow, gives a representative overview of the different trends. Our choice has been carefully considered to include books published in the provinces as well as in Moscow and Leningrad, to place heavily ideologised tracts alongside more liberal materials, and to offer a spread of material covering different age groups, from pre-schoolers to pre-teens. We have concentrated on books that contain material about the actual practices of play, as opposed to schematic recommendations, and on material that is particularly characteristic of the era. The selection runs chronologically to the late 1930s (the Second World War brought a break in attitudes to this subject, as in other areas of child care).
Many of the items included are now extremely rare - the condemnation by state decree of 'pedological perversions' in 1936 led to a purge of pedagogical literature from many libraries, and, as with other kinds of functional literature, the guides were also often used till they wore out. The material that we have gathered offers a unique insight into one of the most important and characteristic areas of socialising the young in early Soviet Russia, and a window into the mentality of the 'first Soviet generations' as well.

Professor Catriona Kelly (Oxford)

Robert A. Stebbins

is dark matter and dark energy (Panek, 2011). It may be similarly argued that much of the effort expended by voluntaristics academics in studying larger, more visible, nonprofit agencies blindly neglects the cumulative effects of associations, especially small grassroots associations, historically

David Horton Smith

; 2006). Using a new theory of IG influence, Laumann and Knoke (1987, pp. 360–362) in a national quantitative study are able to show significant impacts of several IG types on events relating to health and energy in the USA . But such impact tends to be very low in dictatorships or missing

Ram A. Cnaan and Sohyun Park

energy efficient light bulbs, and reusing shopping bags. Using this repertoire of private-sphere behaviors, Katz-Gerro and colleagues ( 2015 ) found that most students in five studied countries reported performing between 2.82 (Israel) and 3.20 (Canada) of these activities on a regular basis. The

Paul Adler and Todd Tucker

-hour-a-week politicos driving New Deal or Keynesian reforms. Shut out of governing coalitions with center-left parties’ turn from technocratic Keynesianism to neoliberal corporatism in the 1980s, 35 they could expend their ample energy helping grassroots groups popularize expertise through factsheets, op-eds, short

Carl Milofsky

been little energy to work on community building projects. About five years ago a new priest was assigned to the Catholic Church. He had worked in high-level, national leadership jobs yet found himself assigned to this backwater community. Not discouraged, he asked what a church could do to help

Jenny Onyx* and Garth Nowland-Foreman

New Zealand philanthropy—including distributions from the assets from privatized community banks and commercialized energy supply authorities, along with a range of other philanthropic trusts described in Table 7 below. In particular, this remains an important source of leverage and often unrestricted

Tom Brass

cultured classes, until there is scarcely a parlour in which one does not stumble over one or more “Socialists”.’ However, he continues that (Kautsky, 1916: 48–49) ‘Socialism has become a fad. It no longer demands any especial energy, and no break with capitalist society to assume the name of Socialist. It

Geoff Nichols

. Motivation happens when the individual’s contribution of excitement, energy, enthusiasm, and effort are balanced by the rewards (Handy, 1985 , 1990 ). Psychological contract theory appears to have particular relevance to volunteers, because volunteers face “less crystallized expectations about behaviour

Emre Balıkçı

legally independent, the parliament endorsed a new public procurement law and (to prevent unlimited and irresponsible government borrowing) a new law on public financing and debt management, and many new IRA s such as the Sugar Authority, the Energy Markets Regulatory Authority, and the Tobacco Products