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Erkki Pehlwnen and Maarit Rossi

Here we will present a brief view of a typical Finnish mathematics teaching. Then some alternative teaching methods, alternative to the traditional teaching, are introduced that teacher educators have convoyed for more than twenty years to mathematics teachers of the comprehensive school in Finland. The methods of delivering have been teacher in-service courses, papers in the teacher journals, teacher pre-service education, etc. There are also given some reasons why to use the alternative teaching methods. The most important teaching methods discussed here are, as follows: Models from everyday life, Activity tasks, Mathematical modelling, Learning games, Problem solving, Investigations, and Project work. Additionally new forms of assessment will be briefly discussed. In Finland the traditional or conventional teaching methods are prevalent in mathematics teaching. Teacher educators have tried to enrich and to change these traditional methods with alternative, more pupil-centred methods. This change of teaching methods got more energy through the emergence of constructivism, in Finland in the 1980's. With the help of alternative teaching methods and of assessment related to them, a teacher is able to follow the learning of adolescents, their real insight and understanding. Here we emphasize beside the teacher's content knowledge also his/her pedagogical content knowledge. The teacher should not only know what subject has been dealt with during the last week, but he/she also should know how his/her pupils have understood concepts related to the subject.


Fran Arbaugh, Rebecca McGraw and Cody L. Patterson

, these kinds of collaborations do not arise naturally nor come particularly easily. Similarly, Bass and Ball (2014) commented, “We can see our progress as well as the hard knocks of the arguments it has taken to get here” (p. 313). These kinds of collaborations take time, energy, and the willingness to


Rossella Santagata, Jiwon Lee and Carlos Sandoval

requires organizations – both school districts or higher-education networks and research institutions – to revisit assumptions and create settings to support and value the energy and time needed for individuals to engage in research-practice partnerships. As a culture often focused on quick solutions in

Teaching Queering Physics

An Agenda for Research and Practice


Helene Götschel

and financial research support in 18th-century Europe. I explain how observed physical phenomena could only become established knowledge after long-lasting negotiation processes. For instance, Robert Mayer, a German ship’s physician, was the first to state the principle of energy conservation. However

What’s in a Name?

Reflections on Learning and Teaching in Central Texas


Tommye Hutson

mentioned a chemistry teacher in high school who could never make it clear “where the energy went” when balancing equations, and a physics professor who graded on a curve and gave her an A, even though she never scored above 60%. She went on about her bad experiences in a science course she tried to take by

Thinking Like a Fox

Queering the Science Classroom When Teaching about Sex and Sexuality


Michael J. Reiss

much time and energy refuting the allegations that any social categories (of gender, race or sexuality) are fixed by biology” ( Birke, 1997 , p. 58). However, as Birke points out, there are, of course, several reasons for hesitating in rejecting entirely biological notions of sexual orientation. For


Andrew Gilbert and Emily M. Gray

as a scientist, teacher, and general science devotee, I’ve found that scientists typically approach new dilemmas and data with unabashed enthusiasm, and this same energy is also exhibited by amateur science lovers. This excitement regarding science phenomena is often used by others to derisively poke

Yearning, Learning, and Earning

The Gritty Ontologies of American Engineering Education


Amy E. Slaton, Erin A. Cech and Donna M. Riley

students’ self-efficacy, in apparent sympathy with inclusive social aims, this formulation is one of many means by which educational thinkers ascribe individuals’ experiences of higher education to personal attributes, including cognitive capacity, physical ability, or energy, rather than drawing our

Children, Nomads, and Queering

Desire and Surprise in a Wiggly World


Sheri Leafgren and Scott Sander

] of ‘deterritorialization’ that elude capture and regulation by the State[,] … evok[ing] powerful subversive energies and intertexts, and revers[ing] the usual dismal picture of urbanity” (pp. 4, 37–38). These uncontained elements act with a nomadic tendency toward a “violence in thought” that “state

Beyond Nature Talk

Transforming Environmental Education with Critical and Queer Theories


blake m. r. flessas and Timothy D. Zimmerman

environmental education’s own exclusivity. Lee (2012) argues that connecting learning to its sociocultural context will help transform learning environments into places where youth are excited to invest their time and energy in science. In recent years, liberal environmental education settings have been