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Charles R. Steen

Margaret of Parma: A Life presents a woman who had a vital part in the political dramas of Reformation Europe. A natural child of Charles V, she was educated in the courts of Brussels, Florence, Rome, and Parma, and then was thrust into religious and political tumult in the Netherlands, where she showed ability and character.
At eight she was moved to Italy to be educated and then married to Alessandro de’Medici. Alessandro’s murder enabled Charles to marry her to Ottavio Farnese, the grandson of Pope Pius III. The union gave her years of experience in Rome. Her father’s abdication took Margaret back to the Netherlands as regent for Philip II. His authoritarian rule and the Calvinist uprising rendered the position horrifying. When rebuked and replaced by the Duke of Alba, Margaret returned to Italy as ruler of Abruzzo.
The character of Margaret assured her importance as she dealt with essential issues of life and rule. This biography reveals a woman dedicated to compromise and conciliation in public affairs.


Carter Vaughn Findley

, same date), both annexed to Asp’s dispatch of 25 July 1793; UUL , F812b, 9 July 1793, MdO to Asp (in first meeting with Ottoman officials, Aubry expressed himself with “too much energy,” starting off badly), F812b, 24 Oct. 1793, MdO to Asp (admits to five meetings; alleges not the “slightest


Carter Vaughn Findley

’ portraits had been published in other works. 29 In contrast, Gustav III ’s idea of depicting the portraits like medallions hanging on a tree was original. 30 Mouradgea’s energy and money for sultans’ portraits probably went into painting and repainting that tree. In addition to several tree paintings in

Laura Rediehs

energies. Perceiving these energies and understanding them (what is sometimes called “emotional intelligence”) is key to being skilled in human relationships. Our emotions also play into how we sense what is helpful and what is harmful in the world. While it is true that sometimes our emotions get it wrong

Michael Birkel

, a pictorial drama, suggesting, hinting, revealing an inside world of Spirit and Will” (Jones, 1914b, p. 184). To explore this inner realm is to enter the mystical life. Boehme as Mystic Even though Boehme expends tremendous energy to depict his complex cosmos, Jones finds his mysticism to be

“To Renew the Covenant”

Religious Themes in Eighteenth-Century Quaker Abolitionism

Jon R. Kershner

first school for African-American children in Philadelphia (Jackson, 2009, p. 244). Teaching would take much of his energy for the rest of his life, but he managed to maintain an important trans-Atlantic correspondence and published antislavery ideas. Benezet corresponded with Granville Sharpe (1735

Rhiannon Grant

or impersonal and whether the divine can be said to have a ‘will’, are often subsumed into this discussion, although it is not always clear to which ‘side’ they should belong. For example, some Quakers talk about the divine as ‘energy’ in an almost Jedi-like way (God, like the Force, is impersonal

Madeleine Ward

to friends , and suggests that clarifying the Quakers’ position on the historical Christ was the focus of his intellectual energy during this period. This focus had not yet led him to question his fundamental Quaker belief in the sufficiency of the Light. However, it is important to recognise that he