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Saïd Amir Arjomand

praise of the Shah preceded the beginning of sineh-zani (chest beating) during the ceremonies. Furthermore, because of its tremendous cathartic effect on the spectators, the ceremonies acted as channels for discharge of potentially rebellious energy and thus aided the domestication of the masses. Yet

Saïd Amir Arjomand

the disciples of the imams—and one very different from that of the pro-ʿAlid tribal condottieri of the civil-war era such as Abuʾl-Saraya. Jaʿfar al-Sadiq is considered a great traditionist, and most of his energy had been devoted to the training of a large number of his followers in the transmission

Saïd Amir Arjomand

and 1950s. The chief menace to the Shiʿite tradition defended by the clerical publicists was no longer the vague but ubiquitous secularism and materialism, but their concrete embodiment in the Bahāʾī sect and the Tudeh Party. 51 Khāliṣī devoted much of his energy to combatting these manifestations of

Saïd Amir Arjomand

constitutional supervision in December 1997. Its work was to be divided among five subcommittees, and its spokesman invited anyone aware of violation of public rights to inform the Commission. 59 The Commission has, however, displayed little energy. When it met President Khātamī to submit its report on 30

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Carter Vaughn Findley

, same date), both annexed to Asp’s dispatch of 25 July 1793; UUL , F812b, 9 July 1793, MdO to Asp (in first meeting with Ottoman officials, Aubry expressed himself with “too much energy,” starting off badly), F812b, 24 Oct. 1793, MdO to Asp (admits to five meetings; alleges not the “slightest

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Carter Vaughn Findley

’ portraits had been published in other works. 29 In contrast, Gustav III ’s idea of depicting the portraits like medallions hanging on a tree was original. 30 Mouradgea’s energy and money for sultans’ portraits probably went into painting and repainting that tree. In addition to several tree paintings in