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Saïd Amir Arjomand

praise of the Shah preceded the beginning of sineh-zani (chest beating) during the ceremonies. Furthermore, because of its tremendous cathartic effect on the spectators, the ceremonies acted as channels for discharge of potentially rebellious energy and thus aided the domestication of the masses. Yet

Saïd Amir Arjomand

and 1950s. The chief menace to the Shiʿite tradition defended by the clerical publicists was no longer the vague but ubiquitous secularism and materialism, but their concrete embodiment in the Bahāʾī sect and the Tudeh Party. 51 Khāliṣī devoted much of his energy to combatting these manifestations of

Saïd Amir Arjomand

the disciples of the imams—and one very different from that of the pro-ʿAlid tribal condottieri of the civil-war era such as Abuʾl-Saraya. Jaʿfar al-Sadiq is considered a great traditionist, and most of his energy had been devoted to the training of a large number of his followers in the transmission