Heinen, Armin

Derived from It. fascio, “bundle, group” (from Lat. fascis), the term “fascism” was applied first to the regime of Mussolini. It is now used to denote right-wing political movements and nonsocialist authoritarian governments. This extension of use has led to a loss of linguistic clarity. The term

Guy Lancaster

Book Reviews / Mission Studies 26 (2009) 249–295 267 Th e Study of Religion under the Impact of Fascism . Edited by Horst Junginger. Leiden, Brill 2008. Pp. 663. $199.00. Th e Study of Religion under the Impact of Fascism constitutes the fi rst broad-based analysis of the role that historians of

Peter-Ben Smit

century, modernity and secularization, the industrial revolution of the 19th century, political movements such as nationalism, fascism, socialism and national socialism, the two World Wars and ensuing Cold War, subsequent developments such as European unification, the sexual revolution, the rise of neo

Wendy Elgersma Helleman

Plato has received his share of bad press in this century. A number of significant schools of thought, like existentialism and phenomenology, have openly expressed impatience with Platonic ‘essentialism.’ He has even been blamed for fascism. Perhaps the problem goes back to Nietzsche’s call, at the turn of the century, to be true to the earth, our common mother. His message was aimed at otherworldly, pious Christians who, with a spiritualism worthy of the Platonists, regarded contemplative thought as the way to truth. Like a doubleedged sword Nietzsche’s call was also directed against metaphysics, dogmatism and intellectualism, the fruits of which he confronted in the weighty tomes for which German scholars then were justifiably renowned. It is not surprising that in the Soviet empire, built on Marxist-Leninist atheism, Nietzsche’s words fell on receptive ears. Not only were philosophers who dared openly to identify themselves as ‘Platonist’ or ‘idealist’ banned, exiled or executed. The teaching of classical antiquity, too, was almost entirely removed from the curriculum; the ancients could be considered only from a highly restricted point of view, via Democritus, Lucretius, or Aristotle.

Klaus Van der Grijp

Christian thought, but that old notions which indeed already played a role in the works of Augustine, are again resumed here. At the same time he shows himself to be quite militant in the matter of renewing Italian culture from its roots. The period of fascism imposed severe restrictions on Italian

Jurjen Zeilstra

, authentic, not because they are identical in content, but because from a perspective of faith they properly address urgent local issues, like repression, fascism or apartheid. Reformed Protestantism never really solved the question of legitimising church supervision. An important Roman Catholic voice at

Eric Patterson

-interested choices because the restraint on their behavior is much lower. Think about how a mob acts versus an individual; nationalist and racist behaviors are cases in point. Niebuhr saw nationalism in the East and the West (National Socialism and Fascism in Europe, and predatory Communism in the East) as examples

Jan Van Butselaar

ideological positions. It would keep the world divided to almost the end of the century. The rise of national socialism and fascism brought a combina- tion between ideology and nationalism, that destroyed the life of many, especially the life of many belonging to one nation, the Jews. The end of the second

K.A. Steenbrink

"fundamentalism", freeing the way for ideas such as holy war, exclusivity. Fernandes compared the call for Hindu-identity or Hindutva with the rise o f fascism in Europe. F r o m a deep economic and cultural crisis people are looking for a new ideology associ- ated with fervent nationalism, with race, religion

The Problem with “Waves”

Mapping Charismatic Potential in Italian Protestantism, 1890–1929

Mark Hutchinson

effectively oppose the rise of Fascism. It was, in his view, the tough, biblicist traditions (the Reformed churches, the Brethren, and the like) that lasted long enough to contribute to a vibrant Italian democracy and to the fight against Fascism. 43 An intellectual himself, he lacks an apparatus for