Derived from It. fascio, “bundle, group” (from Lat. fascis), the term “fascism” was applied first to the regime of Mussolini. It is now used to denote right-wing political movements and nonsocialist authoritarian governments. This extension of use has led to a loss of linguistic clarity. The term
Book Reviews / Mission Studies 26 (2009) 249–295 267 Th e Study of Religion under the Impact of Fascism . Edited by Horst Junginger. Leiden, Brill 2008. Pp. 663. $199.00. Th e Study of Religion under the Impact of Fascism constitutes the ﬁ rst broad-based analysis of the role that historians of
: Dramatic Metaphors of Fascism and Antifascism . Tübingen 1996 .
Hong , Melanie : Gewalt und Theatralität in Dramen des 17. und des späten 20. Jahrhunderts. Untersuchungen zu Bidermann, Gryphius, Weise, Lohenstein, Fichte, Dorst, Müller und Tabori . Würzburg 2008 .
Hubert , Henri
Vatican Council). Catholic state doctrine will play an important role here, and will always be interpreted with regard to National Socialism. Anti-democratic and anti-communist attitudes and the treatment conflict withof different types of European fascism play a particularly important role herein this
diversified forms, she is confronted with the choice: either incense for idols or blood for Christ.”
13 See, for example, Kasper 1988b, 23; mention is made here of the encyclicals of Pius XII , Non abbiamo bisogno (1931, against Italian fascism), Firmissimam constantiam (1937, against the Mexican
Plato has received his share of bad press in this century. A number of significant schools of thought, like existentialism and phenomenology, have openly expressed impatience with Platonic ‘essentialism.’ He has even been blamed for fascism. Perhaps the problem goes back to Nietzsche’s call, at the turn of the century, to be true to the earth, our common mother. His message was aimed at otherworldly, pious Christians who, with a spiritualism worthy of the Platonists, regarded contemplative thought as the way to truth. Like a doubleedged sword Nietzsche’s call was also directed against metaphysics, dogmatism and intellectualism, the fruits of which he confronted in the weighty tomes for which German scholars then were justifiably renowned. It is not surprising that in the Soviet empire, built on Marxist-Leninist atheism, Nietzsche’s words fell on receptive ears. Not only were philosophers who dared openly to identify themselves as ‘Platonist’ or ‘idealist’ banned, exiled or executed. The teaching of classical antiquity, too, was almost entirely removed from the curriculum; the ancients could be considered only from a highly restricted point of view, via Democritus, Lucretius, or Aristotle.
Christian thought, but that old notions which indeed already played a role in the works of Augustine, are again resumed here. At the same time he shows himself to be quite militant in the matter of renewing Italian culture from its roots. The period of fascism imposed severe restrictions on Italian
, authentic, not because they are identical in content, but because from a perspective of faith they properly address urgent local issues, like repression, fascism or apartheid.
Reformed Protestantism never really solved the question of legitimising church supervision. An important Roman Catholic voice at
ideological positions. It would keep the world divided to almost the end of the century. The rise of national socialism and fascism brought a combina- tion between ideology and nationalism, that destroyed the life of many, especially the life of many belonging to one nation, the Jews. The end of the second