the French literary field would end their debates surrounding PRL , which concerned the position of Poulaille and Barbusse, and focused instead on the fight against fascism (Péru; Aron); in Germany, Hitler’s ascent to power forced communist writers into secrecy or exile (Burns); in Japan, under the
Cosmopolitanism in 1936 Buenos Aires expresses itself as a nonelitist commitment to global justice and peace that challenges the imperatives and practices of an international cultural institution such as PEN . At the time of the ascent of fascism, the voices and bodies of the
played a significant role in resistance to fascism, while at the same time never fully managing to harness the ultra-nationalist and pro-fascist forces whose legacy would live on to provoke the country's demise in the 1990s.
Yugoslavian literature and culture gained a certain prominence around the
, who left him early with his mother, against the political system, the social system and religion. In brief, he is revolting against patriarchy, dictatorship, Fascism, traditionalism and all kinds of dogmatism. He is a real rebel, an errant who only finds his resort in his “éspace sudique,” where his
heteronomous international sub-field, with authorities such as the Stalin Prize established in 1949, journals, and publishers. Between these two extremes of communism and fascism, one must situate cultural alliances with sometimes essentialist connotations (like Pan-Germanism and Pan-Latinism), linguistic
in Istanbul at that time of fascism in Europe was a deeply resonating and intense form of exile from Europe. 2
Despite the painful experience of exile, physical and cultural distance enables the critic to free himself from the authority of the culture of his native milieu