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Johanna Jacobsson

sense of employment with host-state employers. 5 The depth and coverage of the GATS is dependent upon the concessions given by the Members. These concessions are separated into horizontal and sector-specific commitments, which are further divided into market access, national treatment and additional

Laura Block and Saskia Bonjour

and best practice’ through EU policies and politics ‘where there is no pressure to conform to EU models’ is commonly referred to as ‘horizontal’ Europeanisation. 15 The assumption here is that ‘vertical’ Europeanisation is triggered by formal EU law such as Directives and Regulations, i.e., by

Anne Staver

life is widely accepted, but family reunification — in effect the freedom of family members to join each other across borders — is contested between individual interests in living with family members and state prerogatives to control borders. The European project of equal citizenship and free movement

Georgia Papagianni

an inverse spill over effect. 57 Moreover, the approach chosen is interesting for the latter as well. First, it is worth reminding that mobility partnerships are based on a Franco-German initiative to reduce illegal migration. 58 Second, Member States’ participation is not problematic, since it is

Oleg Korneev

both horizontal (donor-donor, implementing partner-implementing partner) and vertical (donor-implementing partner) interactions among global migration governors in Central Asia. The article shows that some patterns of governors’ interaction identified within these formats represent significant

Ronagh JA McQuigg

definition of “public authority” under section 6 of the (Human Rights Act).’ 85 In the uk , the courts have used section 6 to contribute to the development of the concept of ‘horizontal effect.’ The courts, as public authorities, are under a duty to act compatibly with the Convention rights, and they

Simon Tans

Directive 96/71/EC. Secondly, both cases raise questions of possible horizontal effect of Articles 43 EC and 49 EC as private entities are infringing the freedom to provide services and the freedom of establishment. Th e outcome of those questions is that trade unions, as earlier sporting associations and

Daniel Thym

. 1 I fully support such a focus on specific themes and mixed methods and, yet, there are alternative perspectives that one may adopt. They include horizontal linkages between different aspects of immigration, asylum and border control policies, which are often studied in isolation, and the

Utopian Concept, Mixed Structure, Digital Extent and New Claims

How to Take Seriously the Right to (Artistic) Culture?

Anna Mlynarska-Sobaczewska

the right to culture are presented that have been in use so far, and which are found in the selected jurisprudence of international and national courts, with particular regard to the horizontal effect and other positive obligations of public authorities as indicated in this case-law. The final part


the “horizontal direct effect” of Article 39 EC are noteworthy. So far the Court had ruled, in particular in the Bosman case ([1995] ECR I-4921), that the prohibition of discrimination enacted by Article 39 would be compromised if it was restricted to actions of public authorities and if it did not