Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 23 items for :

  • All: horizontal effect x
  • Minority & Group Rights x

Raimund Süess, René Pahud de Mortanges

previous chapter According to Art. 35 Sec. 3 of the Federal Constitution, the authorities shall ensure that fundamental rights also apply to relationships among private persons. Thus, this provision establishes an indirect horizontal effect of fundamental rights and obligates the authorities to

Qinxuan Peng

-to-male ratio of estimated earned income is 0.674:1, vis-à-vis 1:1 (total equality) in China. 30 Underneath unequal payment between male and female workers is horizontal and vertical occupational segregation, 31 that is, gender segregation among different vocations and among different levels in the

Sharmin Chowdhury

in the following ways: 37 – Horizontal: State to State – Bottom up: State to the eu – Round about: State to the eu , and then back to State – Top down: eu to the State The word ‘effective’ in this context means the extent to which both the eu and ms instruments are competent to

A. Aslı Bilgin

law instruments and do not have binding legal effect. 3 They can only foster and inspire the eu ’s legislative organs if the Member States compromise on a subject where the Treaties do not confer competences on the eu . Despite the resolutions adopted, there has not been an eu -wide initiative

Marko Valenta and Kristin Thorshaug

seekers”. 10 However, the question of access is not one-sided. Immigration authorities often mention negative consequences when introducing liberal access to work. It is assumed that it could have a “pull effect” on potential asylum seekers by making it attractive for individuals without a real

Maxwell Yalden

bilingualism.2 In effect, the precepts of separating church and state and leaving language matters to the marketplace were subordinated to managed co- existence. Those early arrangements were to evolve in this century into full-fledged regimes of bilingualism, and to a degree biculturalism, with a

Alex Schwartz

the purpose or effect of creating an “intimidating, hostile, degrading, humiliating or offensive environment”. 20 The FETOs anti-discrimination and anti-harassment provisions work in tandem with advice issued by Northern Ireland’s Equality Commission. Under the FETO, the Equality Commission is

Markku Suksi

Åland Islands. The effect of the supremacy of EU law is that the autonomy of the Åland Islands is watered down: the law-making powers of the Åland Islands are being drained to the national government and to the EU, because in principle the EU only talks to the governments of the Member States. It could

Aisling Lyon

factors of human development, education is also an important means of improving life chances, reducing poverty and promoting social inclusion. It therefore represents a significant mechanism for addressing economic horizontal inequalities, an underlying cause of conflict between different ethnic groups

Gay McDougall

significantly weaker. Poverty research using horizontal inequality 20 (which examines measure- ments of political, social, economic and income inequalities along identity lines) and social exclusion perspectives finds that inequality between ethnic, religious or linguistic social groups is common. The Minorities