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Behind Family Trees

Secondary Connections in Uralic Language Networks

Jyri Lehtinen, Terhi Honkola, Kalle Korhonen, Kaj Syrjänen, Niklas Wahlberg and Outi Vesakoski

assess how “treelike” the historical connections are and where conflicting connections are located (Bryant and Moulton, 2003; Heggarty et al., 2010). Thus, networks can also visualize the effects of wavelike development and the effect of contact after divergence, and the use of both networks and trees

The Contact Diffusion of Linguistic Practices

Reference Frames in Mesoamerica

Jürgen Bohnemeyer, Katharine T. Donelson, Randi E. Moore, Elena Benedicto, Alyson Eggleston, Carolyn K. O’Meara, Gabriela Pérez Báez, Alejandra Capistrán Garza, Néstor Hernández Green, María de Jesús Selene Hernández Gómez, Samuel Herrera Castro, Enrique Palancar, Gilles Polian and Rodrigo Romero Méndez

and Nicaragua are influenced in their use of spatial frames of reference by the frequency with which they use Spanish as a second language. To this effect, we compare the use of reference frames among speakers of these indigenous languages and among speakers of three varieties of Spanish spoken in

Harald Hammarström and Tom Güldemann

distribution across the continent according to a horizontally rather than vertically layered pattern. In other words, the linguistic macro-areas currently observable in Africa tend to have a latitudinal orientation. This spatial configuration led Güldemann (2008, 2010) to invoke Diamond’s geographical

Andres Karjus and Martin Ehala

connection between the agents (their link and their “common friend” links) is shown on the horizontal axis, with the potential weights for partners (for the semi-random choice) on the vertical axis. The colored lines exemplify the effect of the ethnic preference value of an agent, with red standing for less

Do Languages and Genes Correlate?

Some Methodological Issues

Lyle Campbell

linguistic differentiation. However, our analyses show that language differences also have a detectable effect on DNA diversity at the genomic level, above and beyond the effects of geographic distance” (Belle and Barbujani, 2007: 1137). Hunley et al. (2007) set out to test the null hypothesis of co

Dmitry Nikolaev

consonant inventories of Eurasian languages, clearly detectable over and above that of phylogenetic inheritance and even possibly obliterating the effect of phylogeny on the level of the phylum. In § 4, a new local density measure—the neighbor-pressure metric ( NPM )—is proposed. This measure is then used

Modeling change in contact settings

A case study of phonological convergence

Katia Chirkova and Tao Gong

suggest that widespread and stable bilingualism is an indispensable prerequisite for convergence (e.g. Weinreich, 1974 [1953]: 6; Hock, 1991: 491–493; Thomason and Kaufman, 1988: 50, 91–97; Matras, 2009). This implies that, in order for convergence changes to take effect in a population group, that group

A Central Asian Language Survey

Collecting Data, Measuring Relatedness and Detecting Loans

Philippe Mennecier, John Nerbonne, Evelyne Heyer and Franz Manni

the subsection immediately following, we sketch the background of the project, which was initiated by population geneticists. We note this here because of the effect it had on the sample of language varieties studied. This is followed by sections on methodology and on results, and we conclude with a

Andreas Baumann and Lotte Sommerer

priming effects do not always decay immediately right after the target is produced but sometimes persist over various trials (Bock and Griffin, 2000); this represents a kind of cumulative priming effect: with repeated trials there is an increased preference of a certain structure (Chang et al., 2006

Copystree

Gaming artificial phylogenies

Simone Pompei, Vittorio Loreto and Francesca Tria

can play with copies from the same phylogeny for multiple game sessions. In this way we allow for the emergence of horizontal evolution, where the same variant is introduced in two or more independent lineages and will mimic the analogous cases of horizontal gene transfer in biology and borrowings in