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Matthias Urban

Aikhenvald, 1999 : 10). In effect, this would mean that in South America one is dealing with two very large linguistic areas that together cover a significant proportion of the entire (sub)continent. 1 The unprecedented surge of efforts to document South America’s indigenous languages in the past 20

Nicholas Enfield

a common ancestor. II. Horizontal : A and B share structure because it was borrowed from one to the other (or from a third) through social contact between speech communities. III. Internal : A and B share structure because it developed independently in each system, through the same natural processes

Patrick McConvell and Maïa Ponsonnet

<horizontally rectilinear>. In this case, these units should be added to the list of atomic senses, so that English straight should be described as colexifying <vertically rectilinear>, <horizontally rectilinear>, <undiluted>, <classical>, <heterosexual>, etc. (See Evans (2010) comparable suggestions and

Margreet Dorleijn

from parent to child, but all the more in the horizontal dissemination from one adult to another? Another issue of debate (see Thomason, 2007 and references therein; van Coetsem, 2000 ) in contact studies is: to what extent are not only language planners, but also ordinary speakers capable of

Bridget Drinka

questioned, however, is the apparent effect of this archaism on the conclusions that are reached. In such a model of very slow diffusion, languages with more archaic features will be more easily characterized as the center of diffusion, since all other languages are demonstrably less archaic and more

Marianne Mithun

. Central Pomo locative/directional suffixes The second part of the shared verbal structure consists of sets of suffixes indicating location and/or direction. Central Pomo, seen earlier, contains such a set. Their effect can be seen by comparing the verbs in (3), all based on the root č á -, used for one

Francesca Moro and Marian Klamer

speakers provided at least one ‘two predicate’ construction. Thus, while the ‘two predicate’ construction is used by heritage speakers, they use it much less than the homeland and first generation speakers. Finally, with respect to the ‘argument fronting’ construction (horizontal lines bar), the heritage

Carola Trips and Achim Stein

of changes in the class of E xperiencer verbs in subsection 4.1, a corpus study of me texts and a full text analysis of the Ayenbite of Inwyt will support her assumptions in subsection 4.2, and show that the retention of the argument structure of the verb please had an effect on the class of

John Lipski

2, which integrates code-switching among fluent bilinguals and interference. 4 John M. Lipski Journal of Language Contact – VARIA 2 (2009) www. Interference Code-switching Overall intent unintentional often intentional Separation of languages in speech chain horizontal or

Beyond the Category

Towards a Continuous Model of Contact-Induced Change

Steve Pagel

people may, for example, become prevailingly different from what it was, by a process of gradual mixture, such as is now bringing a never ending current of immigration to our American shores, with only a minimal effect on the original speech; and, on the other hand, the great bulk of a community may give