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  • All: horizontal effect x
  • Indo-European Languages x

Christina Michelle Skelton

, with information transferred only from an ancestor to its descendants. However, language change though language contact is common—the linguistic equivalent of horizontal gene transfer. 1 There are a variety of means by which linguistic features can be transferred between unrelated languages, but in

On the Accentuation of Vedic -ti-Abstracts

Evidence for Accentual Change

Jesse Lundquist

compiling lists of forms first attested at a later chronological stage rare words are likely to be overrepresented and hence skew one’s results in favor of chronology for what is on closer inspection a frequency effect. 16 In three of the four passages in question bhr̥tí - is translated “present” by

Klaas Bentein

of effecting it, when reasons quite inescapable prevented me from reaching you—on the one side my daughters’ illnesses (which the capricious malice of some god visited upon me, yet may he remove it), on the other the compelling duty of worship of the god Hermes, our guardian. In fact, I would at this

Lea Schäfer

monophthongization to aː < MHG ei is a special development of Vienna German, and a recent trend in other Austrian city dialects. Wiesinger (2001:92) shows that by the end of the 19th century the prestigious Viennese urban monophthong had a strong effect on the dialects spoken by the Lower Austrian rural

Raf Van Rooy

both oral and written features (cf. sub 3.). Figure 1 Linguistic encoding of evidentiality according to Wiemer’s (2010: 63) lexico-grammatical continuum. Only the horizontal direction is meaningful; the vertical dimension is arbitrary in this case

Kenny Coventry, Christos Mitsakis, Ian Davies, Julio Lillo Jover, †Anna Androulaki and Natalia Gômez-Pestaña

to pink in Figure 3 but they are below pink (darker) in Figure 4. From Figure 4 it can be seen that the two blue terms are separated by an im- agery horizontal axis, through the universal blue. They are also separated on v* with [γalázjo] “light blue” lying closer to green and [blé] “blue” nearer to

Adamantios I. Gafos and Angela Ralli

leveling effects of U niformity with the 1 sg [fíluzim]. As we have seen, combining the base /fílus/ with some of the clitics results in phono- logical action. For instance, in the 1 pl /fílus-mas/, voicing assimilation of /s/ before /m/ gives [fíluzmas]. The effect of U niformity is to extend this voicing

Tatiana Nikitina and Boris Maslov

languages; for example, the expressions in (18) are relatively consistent in taking a directional argument to describe the location of the intended addressee: The fact that such uses are licensed by individual verbs, and do not seem to produce any discernible effect of a special

Retextualisation through Contextualisation

The German ‘Reise’ (‘Voyage of St Brendan’) and the ‘Purgatory Narrative’ in the Codex Palatinus Germanicus 60 of the University Library Heidelberg

Sebastian Holtzhauer

shows quite striking similarities with the somewhat later depictions of ‘poor souls’ in German prints of the Brendan legend. In comparison with the print of Anton Sorg, the horizontal scaling of the burning souls in rows of three at each time is remarkable. At least the principle of arranging the souls