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The Matrix of Communication in Social Movements

A Comparison of the 1979 Revolution and 2009 Green Movement in Iran

Roozbeh Safshekan

wide range of media platforms. Foreign mainstream media, in contrast, can express a wider range of narratives but may not always be accessible inside Iran. ‘Alternative media’, in contrast, is amateur, has a participatory and horizontal working structure and often limited funding. In most existing

Suggestion, Translation, Transposition

Semiotic Reflections on Collective Action in the Middle East and Beyond

Peyman Vahabzadeh

Middle East must therefore be viewed primarily in terms of their constituent movements—women’s, students, workers, minorities’ rights movements, and so on, with each movement trying to influence the public discourse and effect legal changes that protect the rights of its constituents. As such, aside

The Weaponization of Doubt

Re-thinking Erdogan in an Era of Trumpism

Christian Christensen

combination with the absence of a structurally-supported ‘horizontal solidarity’ among news workers (C. Christensen 2007: 190–193). The cornerstones of Erdogan’s attacks on journalists in Turkey have been accusations of their support for terrorism and collusion with ‘foreign’ actors, and responses to ‘insults

Jeremy F. Walton

the “civil society effect:” the manner in which identities and practices in civil society are naturalized as authentic and pre-political (Walton 2013). On the other hand, the relationship between liberalism and Hizmet is not entirely seamless. As the agent of a new, liberal mode of governmentality in

Edward Webb

late 1940s, textbooks and curricular guidance pointed to an Islam pushing toward social responsibility, loyalty to authority, and an individual rather than collective religious ethic. The combined effect of state control over the mosques, and its delivery of a particular utilitarian and national idea

Gulf Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis

Facts, Debates and Fatwas

Sari Hanafi

other services for refugees. These efforts have complemented other forms of horizontal political solidarity that have emerged. (Idem) Needless to say the civil society can be uncivil as well. In the reaction of the presence of Muslim refugees, contemporary anti-Muslim movements were developed in Germany

The Making of the Good British Muslim

How the Poppy Hijab Shapes British Muslims’ Sense of Self and Belonging

Friedrich Püttmann

found in Anderson’s theory of the nation, about which he writes that “it is imagined as a community , because, regardless of the actual inequality and exploitation that may prevail in each, the nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship [or] fraternity”. 52 This experience of a

Arshin Adib-Moghhaddam

‘thought control’ that operates in advanced capitalist societies: more ciphered, clandestine, opaque, flatly networked, horizontal, penetrative, global and politically transcendent than that in the intensely vertical and vulgar top-down form indicted in Nineteen Eighty-Four . This current form of ‘thought

An Enduring Monument

Bahrain’s 2011 Pearl Roundabout Protests

Elizabeth Rauh

of the protests, and to erase the newly inscribed memories attached to the concrete structure, the government and GCC forces produced the opposite effect. The end of the monument’s existence in the physical realm propelled it into an imaginary land (Lindner 2009: 139)—one that proved ripe for

The Kanafani Effect

Resistance and Counter-Narration in the Films of Michel Khleifi and Elia Suleiman

Refqa Abu-Remaileh

Kanafani Effect The telling of the Palestinian story through film has produced its own stories, struggles and tragedies, its own exiles and returns. It has, like literature, been driven, shaped and judged by an important element throughout: resistance. In literature, an early and influential treatment