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Tatjana Schnell

vertically or horizontally transcendent . Vertically transcendent spirituality incorporates concepts of an eternal, supernatural god or higher powers. Horizontally transcendent spirituality avoids reference to a supernatural reality but emphasizes the existence of an imminant absolute (Schnell, 2009ab

Michael Galea

consequences of their burnout does have a direct effect on patients’ satisfaction and their overall well-being. Suggestions were made to improve not only education, but also the environment, in order to reduce nurses’ burnout (O’Mahony, 2005). Relevance of Spirituality That stress and coping is an area

J. Z. T Pieper

adressed. 141 questionnaires were returned. This means a response rate of 34,3%. Because of this low response rate, we did a small non-response-investigation.We did expect that people with a positive attitude towards religion and pastoral care were over- represented. Indeed, to some degree this effect

William J. F. Keenan and Tatjana Schnell

spirituality , of which only spirituality is being used in the present study, since atheism implies the absence of belief in God, hence explicit religiosity); 1b. Horizontal selftranscendence : Taking responsibility for (worldly) affairs beyond one’s immediate concerns; 2. Selfactualization : Employing

E. Anker Nilsen

to find in any case a modus vivendi if we shall continue our life's jour- ney. Most people think that this is our main task in life, and feel happy when they can manage the problems of the day. They operate on a horizontal line. In our time of material wellfare it seems to be the level of integration

Peter la Cour, Nadja Hørdam Ausker and Niels Christian Hvidt

usually find very specific uses and highly specialized measures for the term as, e.g., in the title of the study “ Development and Validation of the Atrial Fibrillation Effect on Quality-of-Life (AFEQT) ” (Spertus et al ., 2011 ) on the development of a life quality scale especially for people suffering

Vassilis Saroglou and Jean-Marie Jaspard

; Pratt et al., 1992). It is not clear whether these results reflect a "pure" effect of religious fundamentalism-orthodoxy or whether, at least partially, they reflect an effect of religiosity per se vs. a-religiosity. Most often, samples in the studies men- tioned here were representative of a general

Marinus van Uden and Jos Pieper

also have a negative influence on coping with problems. We used 7 items to measure this negative effect (see section ‘Results’ below). Th e response categories were: ‘1 = yes; 2 = somewhat and 3 = no’. Receptive Coping In Th e Netherlands, Alma, Pieper and Van Uden (Alma, Pieper & Van Uden, 2003; Van

K. Helmut Reich and Dominik Schenker

stages (in cross-sectional studies - Oser/Gmunder, 1991, p. 181) remains as yet an open question. It could be a cohort effect, of course. Reflection on the empirical results also led to slight changes of the theory. For instance, in the first publication in English (Oser, 1980, pp. 279-280), the elements

Pär Salander

‘spirituality’ as “a way individuals seek and express meaning and purpose, as well as the way they experience their connectedness to the moment, to self, to others, to nature and to the significant or sacred” (Puchalski et al. , 2009 ). On the one hand, it thus concerns a horizontal dimension, and, on the