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Toshio Fukuda, Fumihito Arai and Akiko Kawaji

MEASUREMENT The system suffered from serious positional errors on the z -axis. These errors were caused by the optical problem of the object lens. Figure 9 shows the effect of the optical system. Differences of the material’s index of refraction (Table 1) change the actual position greatly. The relation

Kortschack and Fatikow

and their end-effectors as well as the positions of other objects of interest like the parts the microrobots have to manipulate. The calculated positions are transmitted to the control unit, containing a low and a high level control. The measured forces are sent to the control unit and to the haptic

Katsumi Yamaguchi, Takeshi Nakamoto and Takayoshi Obata

. One of the main factors affecting the accuracy of the polymer part is shrinkage during solidiŽ cation. The shrinkage has an effect on the irradiated energy distribution on the polymer because the polymer is shrinking during the irradiation. The shrinkage and irradiated energy distribution cause

Stéphane Regnier, Fabien Dionnet and D. Sinan Haliyo

gripper’s actuators easily develop forces higher than slide/roll limits, but the horizontal motion can generally be controlled for constant speed, which implies ∑ F = 0. 3.3. Simulation and analysis In order to illustrate the rolling and sliding modes, a numerical simulation is proposed. The chosen

Roland Moser, Hannes Bleuler and Jan Sandtner

magnets in combination with displacement (passive bearings) or by superconductive re- pulsion of permanent magnets. Earnshaw’s theorem discards the possibility of passive static magnetic levitation, but by taking advantage of the diamagnetic effect, a passive magnetic system can be sta- bilized. In the

Gentiane Venture, Alain Micaelli, Stéphane Régnier and D. Sinan Haliyo

piezoresistive tipless cantilever beam coupled to two PZT ceramics, for vertical and horizontal motion. This design allows high dynamical performances, used mainly for the release of microparticules gripped by adhesion, as described in Ref. [20]. The dimensions of the AFM probe are 600 × 140 × 10 µ m and its

Antoine Ferreira

. Friction is therefore a critical problem in the design of microconveyers. The main conveyance systems aim to reduce friction forces between the object and the wafer by levitation using the Meissner effect [3], a controlled air  ow system [4, 5] or by using a direct-drive power transmission combining

Takeshi Nakamoto and Sohaib Shabouk

between the cutting speed and the worn surface roughness is shown. In ordinary machining, when the cutting speed increases, the machined surface roughness is improved. In this experiment the effect is the same: the surface roughness of the diamond improves at the high cutting speed. In Fig. 8 there is no

Mariaana Savia, Quan Zhou and Heikki Koivo

‘lateral’ distance from a point on object 1 to a point on ob- ject 2 can become so large that the effect of an extremely small ‘horizontal’ distance disappears from the results and the numerical method loses its accuracy. As a result, also the alignment of the triangles has an effect to the results. This

Emmanuel Piat and Michaël Gauthier

follows the movement of a magnet located under the lower glass pane. The manipulator moves inside the chamber. Magnetic force is a volumic force, so the scale effect is particularly unfavorable to magnetic micro-actuation. However this force used usually in macro-world, is still important in micro