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Lloyd A. Donaldson

Edited by Pieter Baas

and S3 layers of the secondary cell wall. The cellulose microfibril orientation is random in the primary wall, near-horizontal in the S1 and S3 layers and near-vertical in the S2 layer. Early attempts at understanding cellulose orientation and cell wall layering described the multi-layered structure

Elisabeth A. Wheeler, Rashmi Srivastava, Steven R. Manchester and Pieter Baas

Associate-editor Michael Wiemann

-ray pitting in A. indicum. We were not able to examine slides of Ailanthoxylon mahurzarii , but its combination of features supports its assignment to the Simaroubaceae. To consider the effect of vessel-ray parenchyma pit features on the systematic placement of this fossil, we conducted searches without

Sha Jiang, Tamaki Honma, Teruko Nakamura, Ikuo Furukawa and Fukuju Yamamoto

The present study deals with roles of gibberellins (GAs) in gravitropic responses of woody sterns of horizontally-positioned, 2-year-old seedling of Fraxinus mandshurica Rupr. var.japonica Maxim. The application of uniconazole-P, an inhibitor of GAs biosynthesis, to stern nodes at various concentrations significantly inhibited not only righting the sterns but also wood formation. The application of GAs (GA3 and GA4) in combination with uniconazole-P negated the inhibitory effect of the treatment of uniconazole-P alone. The GAs alone did not affect wood formation, however, both GAs increased wood formation on both the upper and lower sides of horizontal sterns with an increase in the concentration of combined uniconazole-P. In all of the seedlings, tension wood was formed on the upper side of sterns. The application of uniconazole-P alone at various concentrations did not inhibit the formation of tension wood fibres.

ATLAS OF VESSEL ELEMENTS

Identification of Asian Timbers

Stephanie Helmling, Andrea Olbrich, Immo Heinz and Gerald Koch

of wood species and their origin has become necessary ( e.g. Dormontt et al. 2015 ; Koch & Schmitt 2015 ; Koch et al. 2015 ), owing to the following laws that have recently come into effect: the U.S. Lacey Act (USA, 1900/amended in 2008), the Illegal Logging Prohibition Act 2012 (Australia

Andrea Cecilia Acosta-Hernández, J. Julio Camarero and Marín Pompa-García

dividing by their standard deviations. To estimate the effect of drought intensity and duration on radial growth, we used monthly values of the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) ( Vicente-Serrano et al. 2010 ). This multi-scalar drought index is calculated using precipitation and

C. Alvites, G. Battipaglia, G. Santopuoli, H. Hampel, R.F. Vázquez, G. Matteucci and R. Tognetti

Edited by Veronica De Micco

effect on the growth of the following year. Tree-ring width and climate variables Relationships between climate and radial tree growth Correlation analysis showed a positive relationship between tree-ring width and monthly average temperature for the BUR samples (p < 0.05), especially in January

Stéphanie C. Bodin, Rita Scheel-Ybert, Jacques Beauchêne, Jean-François Molino and Laurent Bremond

species/genera in horizontal rows and anatomical features in columns. Since most wood anatomical characters are preserved during carbonization, the majority of IAWA features were included in the key. Nevertheless, some features were set aside or refined depending on their relevance for charcoal

Ye-Ming Cheng, Yu-Fei Wang, Feng-Xiang Liu, Yue-Gao Jin, R. C. Mehrotra, Xiao-Mei Jiang and Cheng-Sen Li

Edited by E.A. Wheeler

south to north, and joins the Jinsha River, which feeds the uppermost tributaries of the Yangtze River. The height of the neighbouring mountains range from 1200–2800 m ( Fig. 3 ). The basin is typical of the hot-dry valleys and influenced by the prevailing Foehn effect in which the airflow climbs over

J. Julio Camarero

Edited by Victoria De Micco

to the prior and current years, respectively. Dashed and dotted horizontal lines correspond to the P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 significance levels, respectively. Figure S3. The scores of the first principal component (PC1) of ring-width chronologies excluding Aleppo pine ( Pinus halepensis ), which is