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Yasinta Beda Nzogela, Sofie Landschoot, Ashura-Luzi Kihupi, Danny L. Coyne and Godelieve Gheysen

regime and cultivar and the effect of the nematode P i on a certain dependent variable tested. Where significant differences ( P < 0.05 ) were observed, a pairwise comparison of the groups using a Dunn test was performed. Fig. 1. Above-ground symptoms due to Pratylenchus zeae infection on ‘Supa’ and

Rasha Haj Nuaima, Johannes Roeb, Johannes Hallmann, Matthias Daub and Holger Heuer

neutral factors (Orsini et al. , 2013). The isolation by colonisation or founder effect occurs when a small number of individuals are isolated from the original population and adapt rapidly to the new local conditions, leading them to have genes not representative of the gene pool of the original

Jana Jurová, Marek Renčo, Erika Gömöryová and Andrea Čerevková

et al . (2017) recorded that A. syriaca severely affects the distributional pattern and nesting habits of ground-dwelling arthropods, spiders, ants and diplopods, Kelemen et al . (2016) detected no effect of common milkweed on total plant species richness, but it had a negative effect on the cover

Jan H. Schmidt, Judith N. Seeger, Katharina von Grafenstein, Jenny Wintzer, Maria R. Finckh and Johannes Hallmann

and M. hapla regarding their decline over time in absence of host plants was analysed via linear mixed effect (lme) models using the package nlme (Pinheiro et al ., 2016). According to visual inspection of residual and qq-plots (homoscedasticity, normal distribution), data were either log 10

Myriam Claeys, Nurul Dwi Handayani, Vladimir V. Yushin, Prabowo Lestari, Antarjo Dikin, Johannes Helder and Wim Bert

slush (a semi-solid form of nitrogen obtained after evacuation of liquid nitrogen). Nitrogen slush with a temperature of −210°C provides higher cooling rates resulting in better cryo-preservation. The copper tubes, held with fine forceps, were inserted into the nitrogen slush horizontally to ensure that

Alexander Cheves, Alfonso Vargas and Mario Araya

nematodes ( R. similis + Helicotylenchus spp. + Meloidogyne spp. + Pratylenchus spp.). There was a signiŽ cant effect of soil depth on the density of each genus. An interaction between soil depth and plant height and with horizontal distance was found for R. similis and total nematodes. For the three

Fred Kizito, Beverley McIntyre, Imelda Kashaija and Henry Ssali

effect on the vertical or the horizontal distribution of banana roots and nematodes. Approximately 90% of the root biomass was in the upper 0.3 m and none was below 0.7 m. Within 0.5 m of the banana mat, the majority of root mass was in the surface 0.15 m, but outside this radius more were found from 0

Pablo Castillo

, including mitochondrial genomes, horizontal gene transfer, and population genetics and metagenetics. Chapters 3, 4 and 5 give an updated review of several biological aspects of cyst nematodes, such as biology of hatching, diapause, sex pheromones, peptide signals, sources of effectors and biochemistry of

Sophie Mantelin, Peter Thorpe and John T. Jones

with their hosts are mediated largely by effectors. There are many different definitions of ‘effectors’ used in different branches of plant pathology. For the purposes of this article we use the relatively broad definition suggested by Bird et al . (2015): “Any pathogen molecule that suppresses host

Tiasei Kikuchi, Peter J.A. Cock, Johannes Helder and John T. Jones

. , 2011a). These genes are expressed in the pharyngeal gland cells and the enzymes are introduced into the host through the stylet. There is strong evidence to support the hypothesis that these genes have been acquired by nematodes through horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and that multiple independent