divided in three parts horizontally so that Ukars and Matras could be joined easily.’ This system is known as ‘The Bombay (or Degree) Type.’ 41 He comments further: It is an admitted fact that the three-step setting of the Devanagari script is a laborious task and a difficult job from the point
Aristophanes’ plays. However, in those editions the same typeface is used for the speaker’s name and the spoken text. Indentation aside, capitalisation is the only differentiation employed—the effect diminished by the frequent convention of abbreviating the name. Religious texts, most notably the New Testament
Jonathan Bradbury and Nigel Griffin
the complex machines and effect the scene changes) but also, on a more modest scale, in the commercial theatre, Christopher Oechler, ‘The Performance of Divine Providence on the Early Modern Stage: Tumbling Canvases and History Plays’, BC , 67.2:49–65, discusses one not infrequent such stage effect
This article examines the effect and affect of historical representations in wartime Chinese theater and cinema, as well as the interplay between the two media. With the burgeoning of late Ming stories on stage and on screen, the fall of the Ming became a “chosen trauma” that connects the nation’s past with its historical present. However the traumatic fate of the nation was never the actual subject of representation, but served to enhance the affective power of tragic‐heroic figures. Focusing on A Ying’s Sorrow for the Fall of the Ming, one of the most popular wartime historical plays, the paper studies the narrative structure, performance style and adaptation strategy of the play to demonstrate how patriotic spirit was foregrounded as the key to national survival. It was through the audience’s resonation with the characters’ passionate speech on stage and on screen that individuals’ emotional attachment to the nation was consolidated, both horizontally across space and vertically through history.