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Judy Wakabayashi

accuracy, the “character illusion” effect also makes any shifts in meaning or function more difficult to detect. The prominent coexistence of four scripts in Japanese helps alert us to the lesser but still occasionally significant role of script in other languages, including alphabetic languages

Oana Popescu-Sandu

one language when writing in another, for poetic effect, is shared by Nigerian writer Gabriel Okara: “a writer can use the idioms of his own language in a way that is understandable in English … Some may regard this way of writing in English as a desecration of the language. This is of course not true

Did Romania Move South?

Representations of Geocultural Identity

Oana Fotache

Casanova calls the “Herder effect” (78): the simultaneous rise of the idea of a national language and state. 2 The most influential intellectuals have placed the Romanian people in a vaguely defined Orient in opposition to the Western world. Until the mid-19th century and then in the aftermath of the

Locating the World in Metaphysical Poetry

The Bardification of Hafiz

Fatima Burney

has been directed at more utopian visions of world literature is, in effect, needling against the “horizontal” premise which imagines the surface of the globe as an easily traversable space and the citizens of “pink, green [and], yellow” spaces as equal inheritors of the world. 6 Classical Persian