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the tendency of earlier scholars, adopted by popular “goddess” literature, to overlook the individuality of Near Eastern goddesses, reducing every goddess to some other god- dess and identifying all of them with a “Great Mother” as if they were interchangable. She also questions the deŽ nition of

In: NIN

periods) the feminine aspect of goddesses became increasingly emphasized, many no longer acted independently and were reduced to the roles of mother and consort of a god. Some goddesses even changed gender, others, like Nisaba, the goddess of writing, and Ere s kigal, the goddess presiding over the

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of the mothers depicted in these Ž gurines were divine; in particular, Egyptian artists portrayed nursing goddesses as protectors and providers of pros - perity. Egyptian goddesses transferred divine powers to human rulers through breast milk. Elsewhere, the identity of the depicted mother is much

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Falklands War (ch. 3) and the varying uses to which the image of Athena has been put over the cen- turies (ch. 6). Another stimulating study is Denise Riley’s War in the Nursery (London: Virago, 1983), which focuses on the way popular and psychoanalytical perceptions of the ideal mother-child relationship

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, the mother or the practitioner steers the boat safely into harbor. In the following example, the woman is assisted by the goddesses Inanna and Ninhursag: 56 The woman who was about to give birth steered the Gi -boat through the water, pure Inanna steered the Gi -boat through the water, Ninhursag

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texts that played a magical role in his or her revival in the afterworld, just as the laments of the goddesses Isis and Nephthys had revived their murdered brother, Osiris. 3 By analysing the representations of male and female mourners in text and picture, and the interaction depicted between women and

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Thorkild Jacobsen , AS 20. (ed. Stephen J. Lieberman; Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1975), 130-131; Marvin Powell, “Ukubi to his Mother . . . the Situation is Desperate: a Plaidoyer for Methodological Rigor in Editing and Interpreting Sumerian Texts with an Excursus on the Verb taka: da x -da x

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“Golgoi was a place of wor- ship of the ancient Cypriot mother goddess and was probably associated there with her male counterpart, as at other Cypriot sanctuaries” (p. 152). This paper does perhaps the best job in the volume of investigating the gendered experiences of men as well as women, demonstrating

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, without any doubt, only by authorization of her husband (U.16828, UET V 34); also the widows with whom written agreements were made concerning their 226 alimentation by their sons, certainly could not enter into official or business relations with third persons (thus Aliabi, mother of WaradNannal), U

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient

husband of many women His 'wives' were originally local mother-goddesses, each in her own right. The 'husband' eased the transition from mother-right to patriar- chal life, and allowed the original cults to be practised on a subordinate level. This is even better seen in the marriage of Siva and Parvati

In: Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient