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rest—and this formal Arabic needed to be learned by all, foreigners as much as city-dwelling Arabs, whose mother tongue was a different, colloquial variant of Arabic (also called Neo-Arabic). Only mastery of the formal variant opened the door to administrative and scholarly careers. Why was correct

In: Studia Islamica

, 1971, pp. 122-51. Heroes, p. 122. 2 Ibid. 28 Ibid., pp. 122-3. 29 Ibid., p. 174. 30 Al-Da'mi, pp. 223-54. 147 haps because he wanted to allot more effort to the Oriental churches that existed then. Nevertheless, he makes a reference to El-Lat (Allat), one of the revered goddesses of pre

In: Medieval Encounters

mythologies Greek heroes had often passed their tests and trials in the Caucasus: Prometheus had been chained to a peak in the Caucasus mountain, Phrixos looked for protection against his mother-in-law at the court of Aetes, the king of the Colchians, and the Argonauts sailed to Colchis. It is not by chance

In: Medieval Encounters

Cabaline, he added, the spirituality associated with the therianthropes, gods and goddesses of the rock art gave way to the material values of the war- rior, the “civil potentate” (Id., 229). Mori (1990-1991, 95) also laments the “desacralization” of the art shelter spaces during the Pastoral Period; and

In: Arabica

. As soon as the Emperor Constantine and his mother Helena achieved their plan of consecrating all Near Eastern sites associated with Gospel history, and of identifying them with Churches and sacred memorials, a flow of pilgrims began to invade the Near East from all parts of Europe, so that no place

In: Die Welt des Islams

, untaught, without a mother, unshakable, not contained in a name, known by many names, dwelling in fire, this is God. We, his angels, are a small part of God”, as a famous inscription from third-century Oenoanda proclaims. 72 The speaker is Apollo, a previously autonomous deity who here identifies himself as

In: Arabica

of which were armed men, but which also included mothers carrying their young. As in the San Gregorio façade with which this pal- ace is directly related, the savage’s prominence was here united with the very direct and literal intrusion of nature into architecture. Th is phenomenon of the savage

In: Medieval Encounters

Nevertheless, there is early documentation for a “private” foundation: it stands “utterly isolated” in the transitional period between the 3rd and 4th Dynasty (ca. 2600). 40 A man (an official) by the name of Mṯn possessed an inheritance from both his father and mother, as well as incomes from leased royal

In: World History as the History of Foundations, 3000 BCE to 1500 CE

genders, and like humans they reproduce" (p. 95), these spirits, by their functional features and sphere of activities, are more frequently identified as female demons. It is not accidental that in Armenia the al crone ("mother al") combination (cf. also the Persian madar-e-äI) is usually encountered in

In: Iran and the Caucasus

equal to the visible ones. The first type includes phalli of a naturalistic form. Those of the second type repre- sent either figurines with hands or breast (a common pose for Mother-goddess), or phalli with testicles, stuck into the earth like a plough. None of them bears any in- scription. 6 During an

In: Iran and the Caucasus