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M.L. Case

the tribes (Judg 19-20), the process of providing virgin brides for the Benjaminite remnant seals the reconciliation between these warring parties. In order to argue this, I examine anthropological theories of gift exchange, including women as wives as an essential form of gift exchange. I then use


Christian M.M. Brady

This volume is a study of how Targum Lamentations (TgLam) interpreted and responded to the theologically challenging message of the Book of Lamentations. Through various exegetical techniques the targumist has transformed Lamentations into a rabbinic program for the synagogue.
The first section examines how the targumist demonstrated that Israel herself is responsible for the destruction of Jerusalem and thus absolves God of all culpability. Yet the targumist continues to assert that God is the ultimate source of all history. The second section examines how the targumist depicts God as orchestrating events through his action and abstention. Finally, the targum argues that reconciliation with God can only come about through repentance and rabbinic worship.
A new translation and a transcription of TgLam from Codex Urbinas Hebr. 1 is included.

Reward, Punishment, and Forgiveness

The Thinking and Beliefs of Ancient Israel in the Light of Greek and Modern Views


Joze Krasovec

This book deals with central and universal issues of reward, punishment and forgiveness for the first time in a compact and comprehensive way. Until now these themes have received far too little attention in scholarly research both in their own right and in their interrelationship. The scope of this study is to present them in relation to the foundations of our culture. These and related issues are treated primarily within the Hebrew Bible, using the methods of literary analysis. The centrality of these themes in all religions and all cultures has resulted, however, in a comparative investigation, drawing attention to the problem of terminology, the importance of Greek culture for the European tradition, and the fusion of Greek and Jewish-Christian cultures in our modern philosophical and theological systems. This broad perspective shows that the biblical personalist understanding of divine authority and of human righteousness or guilt provides the personalist key to the search for reconciliation in a divided world.

The Day of Atonement

Its Interpretations in Early Jewish and Christian Traditions 


Edited by Thomas Hieke and Tobias Nicklas

Established at the center of the Torah, the instructions for the celebration of the “Day of Atonement” hold a prominent position (Leviticus 16). The language of atonement, purification and reconciliation represents the variety of concepts that both explore the complex relationships between God and man, between Yahweh and his chosen people Israel, and that set apart the place of encounter—the sanctuary. Leviticus 16 has served as the point of departure for numerous religious and cultural practices and thoughts that have had a formative influence on Judaism and Christianity up to the present day. The essays in this volume form a representative cross section of the history of the reception of Leviticus 16 and the tradition of the Yom ha-Kippurim.

text, three primary interpretations of the passage before the break were proposed: (1) the king is speaking of preparations for an up-coming marriage to an Amurrite princess (Caquot 1975:431–432); (2) the topic is an attempted reconciliation between the king of Ugarit, who would be ʿAmmiṯtamru II (who

Beckman, Gary

his or her post. The remedy for this evil situation was the performance by both human and divine practitioners of an expiatory ritual which included a mythological account of the deity’s displeasure, departure, and reconciliation. Such “disappearing god texts” (Parker 1989) are attested for at least a

Porten, Bezalel

, that is day ⌜20+⌝1 (= 21)The “20” mark is partially hidden in the papyrus crease. of Mesore, year 6 of Artaxerxes the king,The two dates are a month off. For reconciliation see  EPE  164, n. 3. Parties said Mahseiah (2)son of Jedaniah, a Jew,Elsewhere he was called “Aramean”; see COSB.3.59, n

Sōtēria: Salvation in Early Christianity and Antiquity

Festschrift in Honour of Cilliers Breytenbach on the Occasion of his 65th Birthday


Edited by David du Toit, Christine Gerber and Christiane Zimmermann

In Sōtēria: Salvation in Early Christianity and Antiquity, an international team of scholars assembles to honour the distinguished academic career of New Testament scholar Cilliers Breytenbach. Colleagues and friends consider in which manner concepts of salvation were constructed in early Christianity and its Jewish and Graeco-Roman contexts. Studies on aspects of soteriology in the New Testament writings, such as in the narratives on Jesus’ life and work, and theological interpretations of his life and death in the epistolary literature, are supplemented by studies on salvation in the Apostolic Fathers, Marcion, early Christian inscriptions and Antiochian theology. The volume starts with some exemplary studies on salvation in the Hebrew Bible, the Dead Sea scrolls, the Septuagint, and popular Graeco-Roman literature and philosophy. Furthermore, some contributions shed light on the ancient cultural background of early Christian soteriological concepts.

, 1999), p. 253. See also Fokkelman, p. 83, and R. C. Bailey, David in Love and War: The Pursuit of Power in 2 Samuel 10-12 (She ffi eld, 1990), p. 98. 11 I Kings xv 5. LA TUNIQUE ENSANGLANTÉE DE JOSEPH (GN XXXVII 31-33): UN ESPOIR DE RÉCONCILIATION? L’histoire de la tunique de Joseph maculée du sang d

Philip Alexander

117 (sometimes addressed as dodi ) is, for the most part, identified with God. The pattern of estrangement and reconciliation between the two main dramatis personae in the underlying biblical text is mapped onto the history of God’s relationship with Israel as follows: 1 . 3 – 5 . 1 , from the exile