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Losch, Bruno

Ouattara, and investor confidence rose. However, progress lagged on a host of critical key issues, from justice and political reconciliation to security sector reform, which clearly undermined political stability and put the country at risk. A series of armed raids (nearly every month and sometimes daily

Gberie, Lansana

unemployment, however, remained high, and inflation rose to 11%, sharply increasing the cost of living. Concerns about graft and nepotism were expressed locally and internationally. Sirleaf ’s co-winner of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize, Leymah Gbowee, resigned as head of the Peace and Reconciliation Commission, a

Losch, Bruno

support from his international backers. Compared with 2012, security improved, with a decrease in armed attacks by fighters backing the camp of defeated president Laurent Gbagbo, but the slow pace of reconciliation and the difficulties of prosecuting war criminals and those suspected of economic crimes

Babo, Alfred

For Côte d’Ivoire, 2014 was a year of mixed hope and anxiety. The post-war reconciliation process produced modest and limited results. The year was also marked by the trial of prominent members of the former regime, including the former first lady, Simone Gbagbo. However, nobody from President

Kohnert, Dirk

The roadmap for democratisation and economic liberalisation, negotiated with the EU as a precondition for resuming aid, dominated foreign and domestic politics. Opposition parties entered the new national dialogue on reconciliation only reluctantly in view of the authoritarian attitudes of the

Kohnert, Dirk

The national reconciliation process initiated in 2006 continued. Largely free and fair parliamentary elections in October paved the way for the resumption of development aid after a 14-year of interruption because of serious human rights violations and bad governance. The economic situation

Hofmeier, Rolf

, new island presidents were elected on Ngazidja/Grande Comore and Mohéli without similar controversies. Despite considerable international efforts to bring about a national reconciliation, no tangible results were achieved and by the end of the year a future military confrontation with the Anjouanese

Losch, Bruno

. Then began the long and challenging process of reconciliation, the reconstruction of crumbling infrastructure and the rebuilding of the economy. This gradual normalisation was reinforced by the election of a new parliament in December.

Vandeginste, Stef

and reconciliation commission was established. Relations with the un and with neighbouring Rwanda became increasingly tense. Students at the University of Burundi went on strike on several occasions. Some efforts were made to diversify Burundi’s economy.

Eizenga, Daniel

, and promoting justice and national reconciliation. Security in the northern regions deteriorated significantly as jihadist groups exploited the porous borders between Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso, conducting attacks on security forces and civilians. Relations with Côté d’Ivoire grew tense as former