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N. Verbin

This paper proposes forgiveness—human forgiveness for divine abuse—as a religious response to the suffering of the innocent. It is divided into three sections. The first section examines the logical space within which forgiveness is possible. It shows that forgiveness presupposes the possibility of a meaningful relationship between valuable moral agents who have certain fundamental rights and who may seriously compromise each other’s happiness. The second section discusses the nature of forgiveness, arguing that forgiveness is distinguished from reconciliation and has to do primarily with the overcoming of one’s resentment of one’s assailant, which does not require the assailant’s repentance or a more favorable view of one’s assailant. The third section discusses Job’s relationship with God as an instance of a victim-assailant relationship and shows that, while Job transcended his resentment toward God and forgave God for the unjust suffering that He had inflicted on him, he was not willing to be reconciled with Him. Forgiveness, even in cases lacking divine response, is thus presented as a viable option for the abused believer for sustaining a minimal relationship with God.

Michael Zank

need of reconciliation. 10 The retrieval of the long and complex prehistory and the conditions for the plausibility of Philo’s work—including the important question of a philosophical dimension of Scripture acquired before, as well as through, its translation into Greek—are beyond the scope of this

Unconditional Responsibility in the Face of Disastrous Violence

Thoughts on religio and the History of Human Mortality

Burkhard Liebsch

pólemos as warfare against external enemies. Both were aware, however, how easily conflict can breed stásis which in turn may eventually bring on pólemos by way of escalation of conflict beyond a mere life of discord. Thus, a point can be reached where reconciliation between conflicting parties via

From the Unconditioned to Unconditional Claims

Violence, Radical Theology, and Crisis

Jason W. Alvis and Jeffrey W. Robbins

Unconditioned, violence, unconditional claims – all were essential to a figure who had a major impact on Altizer – Paul Tillich. Tillich, whose theologies of both conditioned things (his contemporary culture) and unconditioned ones (God, divinity) culminated into an uneasy reconciliation in his cultural

Anastasia E. Somerville-Wong

prior to and well after the destruction of the Jerusalem temples and the centralized priesthood. There are now seder dinners focused on human rights, modern day slavery, labour rights, women, lgbtq people, Palestinian-Israeli peace and reconciliation, veganism, the environment, and on pagan and other

Dustin Noah Atlas

showing what is at stake in these visions for Mendelssohn’s own work. Why does vision matter here? Why is argument not enough? Because, despite Mendelssohn’s call for brotherhood and reconciliation, he is well aware that this is a legitimate controversy, and therefore each can make a fairly reasonable

After Darwin

Morality in a Secular World

Jeff O’Connell and Michael Ruse

needs would come into a kind of harmony with the needs of others, resulting in the complete reconciliation of egoism and altruism. The attainment of this kind of moral utopia would result in the maximization of pleasure for each individual, due to the fact that pleasure was a product of successful


Michael R. Trice

Interest in recent years in reconciliation and conflict transformation has witnessed a great deal of attention to building a future through forgiveness and preventative measures in order to impede egregious wrongdoing. This effort for a reconciled future is absent reflection on the nature of cruelty. Cruelty has always been apparent in massive acts of wrongdoing and yet is repeatedly concealed in our assessment of the acts themselves. This book is a theologically honest and deep-structure exploration of cruelty in its personal, communal and institutional encounters in human life. Drawing on Nietzsche's challenge of cruelty to the western tradition, the work offers a comprehensive study of how cruelty undermines care, trust, respect and justice – all those elements of human reciprocity that mark our lives as interdependent beings. The work concludes with a tightly written Epilogue on interpreting the theological meaning and accessibility of reconciliation today.

Gersonides’ Theory of Miracles

Determinism and Choice

Sara Klein-Braslavy

learned from Metaphysics iii and from Averroes’ commentaries on the Metaphysics and the Topics . 2 The present article deals with the role of choice in Gersonides’ theory of miracles. I would like to show that his theory of miracles in Wars vi .2.10 is another link in his reconciliation of

Double Hospitality

Between Word and Touch

Richard Kearney

—turning his fratricidal conflict with Esau into an embrace of reconciliation the next day. Or think of the healing hands of Christ, touching the blind and sick, the lepers and lost ones, giving life back to the dead. Other examples of healing touch are scattered throughout wisdom literature, from Euryclea