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John Granger Cook

crucifixion in Cumae during a gladiatorial spectacle; the lex Puteolana which regulated both the crucifixion at private expense of slaves and public crucifixions in that town; 2 the lex Cumana which probably, among other things, regulated crucifixion there; and a graffito in a taberna of Puteoli that

Peter Marshall

advantage and subjecting him to humiliation as a result. There can be no doubt that the triumph is used here as a metaphor of shame. It is also worth noting that the ideas of display, making a spectacle of, holding up to riducule and of shame are implicit in this form of the metaphor. In Latin literature

(i.e., in a Mediterranean climate) in the months of January or February-as is well known, the festival of the Lenaea was celebrated in Athens in the open air around January, when an audience witnessed a theatrical spectacle (see Arthur Pickard-Cambridge, The Dramatic Festivals of Athens2 (Oxford

J. Albert Harrill

Passage, Household, and Spectacle The toga virilis consisted of a series of progressive rituals marking a boy’s coming of age (or “social puberty”) in the Roman household and society, decided by the father but often celebrated between the ages of Ž fteen and sixteen. 13 The rite had a familial dedication

Putting on the New Self

Costume and Character in Eph 4:22–24

David Starling

person of Telephus” ( Diss. 1.1; Τήλεφον τινὰ ὑποδυσάµενοι), 26 and an audience member at a gladiatorial spectacle “laying aside the [role of] spectator to become a competitor” ( Diss. 1.4; ἀποθέµενος τὸν θεατὴν ἀγονιστης γενέσθαι). 27 A third, from Lucian’s Piscator , offers the illustration of an

Rory B. Egan

wreath from his head, and made a spectacle of him". Here the word 0pi«ypoq is used in reference to an act which is quite literally an "exposure" or "displaying" of the man, and it is used in a context which is hardly evocative of any kind of triumph. In fact Thecla, the subject of the sentence, far from

M.J. Edwards

other crimes. This was itself a refusal to accept the work of the Saviour, and such tendencies, inflamed perhaps by the spectacle of promiscuous transgression which was exhibited by cer- tain Christian sects, 18 may have manifested themselves in new asperities which the author of this Epistle thought it

David Starling

spectacle to the world” in 1 Cor 4:8-13 (cf. Scott J. Hafemann, Suffering and Ministry in the Spirit: Paul’s Defense of His Ministry in II Corinthians 2:14-3:3 [Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1990] 52-59). Further support for this reading of 2 Cor 1-7 can be found in the argument of Geurt van Kooten that Paul

John Granger Cook

). J. Bodel summarizes funeral practices in “Death, the Afterlife, and Other Last Th ings. Rome,” Religions of the Ancient World: A Guide (ed. S.I. Johnson; Cambridge/London: Harvard University, 2004) 489-492 and “Death on Display: Looking at Roman Funerals,” Th e Art of Ancient Spectacle (ed. B. Berg