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  • Early Modern History x

Marginal Voices

Studies in Converso Literature of Medieval and Golden Age Spain


Amy I. Aronson-Friedman and Gregory B. Kaplan

The conversos of late medieval and Golden Age Spain were Christians whose Jewish ancestors had been forced to change faiths within a society that developed a preoccupation with pure Christian lineage. The aims of this book is to shed new light on the cultural impact of this social climate, in which public suspicion of the religious sincerity of conversos became widespread and scrutiny by the Inquisition came to impede social advancement and threaten life and property. The bulk of the essays center on literary works, including lesser known and canonical pieces, which are analyzed by scholars who reveal the heterogeneous nature of textual voices that are informed by an awareness of the marginal status of conversos.
Contributors are Gregory B. Kaplan, Ana Benito, Patricia Timmons, David Wacks, Bruce Rosenstock, Laura Delbrugge, Michelle Hamilton, Deborah Skolnik Rosenberg, Kevin Larsen and Luis Bejarano.

Voicing Dissent in Seventeenth-Century Spain

Inquisition, Social Criticism and Theology in the Case of El Criticón


Patricia Manning

Although the Spanish Inquisition looms large in many conceptions of the early modern Hispanic world, relatively few studies have been made of the Spanish state and Inquisition’s approach to book censorship in the seventeenth century. Merging archival and rare book research with a case study of the fiction of Baltasar Gracián, this book argues that privileged authors, like the Jesuit Gracián, circumvented publication strictures that were meant to ensure that printed materials conformed to the standards of Catholicism and supported the goals of the absolute monarchy. In contrast to some elite authors who composed readily transparent critiques of authorities and encountered difficulties with the state and Inquisition, others, like Gracián, made their criticisms covertly in complicated texts like El Criticón.

Joan-Pau Rubiés

other writings on South Indian Hinduism, such as those produced by the Jesuits Fenicio, Rubino, Brito or Bouchet, or by the Protestant Roger, will be struck by the extent to which Ziegenbalg and Gründler were willing to let the voices of Hindu Tamils take center stage. Missionaries had for many decades

Jianguo Peng

The pronunciation of Middle Chinese voiced initials as l- is a characteristic of Yiyang dialect. The circumstances of the change are classified into three types: Cong (從), Xie (邪), Cheng (澄), Chong (崇), Chuan (船) and Chan (禪) followed the pathway dz- > z- > ɹ- > l-, Ding (定) followed the pathway d- > l-, and Ri (日) became pronounced as l- due to the influence of literary readings. The sound change of voiced affricates weakening to voiced fricatives, voiced fricatives changing to approximants and then to the lateral approximant, and voiced stops changing to the lateral approximant are unusual devoicing developments among Chinese dialects


Jan M.I. Klaver

This Life of Charles Kingsley is a detailed intellectual biography, which is at the same time a critical and contextual study. Working from the original manuscript letters, the author has placed the events of Kingsley’s life against a social-historical-religious background, paying much attention to such mid-nineteenth-century issues as geological discoveries, the Oxford Movement, biblical Higher Criticism, Chartism, sanitary reform, the Crimean War, the Indian Mutiny, Darwinism, the American Civil War, and the anti-slavery campaigns. Analyses of Kingsley’s relationships with important contemporaries are allotted ample space, and special emphasis has been given to themes on which previous biographies have remained relatively silent. Kingsley emerges from this study as one of England’s leading nineteenth-century voices as poet, novelist, social reformer, churchman and historian.
The Huguenots

As in many parts of Europe, the convulsions stirred by Martin Luther evoked a lively response in France. The rapid condemnation of Luther's heretical propositions by the Paris Faculty of Theology, the Sorbonne, ensured that the spread of evangelical doctrines would follow an altogether more tortured path. The first evangelical texts available in French were mostly translations from German or Latin of works by the major German reformers, and this continued to be a strong strand of evangelical publishing through to the middle of the century, when native writers began to make their voices heard. At first French authors ventured only a very tentative avowal of evangelical principles. Many of these cautious reformist works emanated from the Court circle associated with Marguerite de Navarre, sister of King François I, and they envisaged no fundamental break with the established church.

An entirely new situation arose when French writers moved in the mid 1530s to a more outspoken attack on Catholicism. The seminal text of this phase of the movement was the famous placard of 1535, though this was part of a larger literature that included a number of short, excoriating attacks on Catholic belief and practice. The scandal that followed the posting of the placard brought an end to the era of polite evangelism. Many leading reformers fled abroad; those that remained did so in risk of their lives.
The emergence of Geneva as a centre of the exile movement gave shape to a previously amorphous and disparate movement. Throughout the 1540s and 1550s Jean Calvin, and his collaborators Pierre Viret and Guillaume Farel, were the dominant voices in French evangelism. Their writings made of Geneva a major publishing centre, and established an enduring relationship between the Swiss city and the subsequently emerging French church.
The first avowedly Calvinist, or Reformed churches in France were established in 1554-1555. At first the influence of Geneva was overwhelming. Genevan educated ministers steered the church towards a theology and organisational structure closely modelled on that of Calvin's church. But as the Huguenot movement entered its period of most rapid expansion, after 1559, this dominance was gradually eroded. French Calvinism found its own voice: more assertive, more triumphalist, abandoning Calvin's emphasis on patience in the face of persecution. This new mood is reflected in this collection in a large number of anonymous tracts, scabrous, rumbustious attacks on the old clergy, joyous in celebration of Protestant victories as confrontation turned to warfare in 1562.
The end of the first war (1563) arrested the momentum of the Huguenot movement. The churches ceased their apparently inexorable growth, that had seen over 1000 churches established in less than five years, and the conversion of up to half of the nobility. Henceforth the Huguenot churches would seek equilibrium and doctrinal stability in a context of declining political influence and gradually eroding membership, even before the massacre of St Bartholomew's Day in 1572 confronted the church with its most serious crisis. The writings of the church's leaders during these years fell broadly into three categories: attempts to stabilise the church organisation, defending the Genevan model against persistent attacks from exponents of different forms of church governance; defences of the theology of the church against a resurgent Catholicism; and admonitions to penitence and resolution in times of suffering. This last strand became even more urgent after the massacre of 1572, which decimated the leadership of the movement and brought the previously powerful churches in northern France to the verge of collapse.
Through all of these events the influence of Genevan authors, particularly Calvin and Theodore de Bèze, remained strong, but a cadre of native French writers was finally beginning to emerge, among them Antoine de la Roche Chandieu, Jean de l'Espine and Philippes du Plessis Mornay. These three gifted authors offered an eclectic mixture of theology, consolation literature and political and religious polemic. Du Plessis Mornay also functioned, through his connections to Henri de Navarre, as a link to the political and diplomatic struggle. It was this connection, rather than the more famous resistance theory of the so-called monarchomach authors, that offered the way forward for the movement, and Huguenot morale was greatly enhanced by the emergence of Navarre first as heir (1584) and then, in 1589, as King. The final phase of the conflict saw the resolution of this relationship following Henry's inevitable conversion to Catholicism in 1594, with the negotiations leading to the Edict of Nantes in 1598 which brought an end to the military conflict. These political events also brought a renewed vitality and urgency to the polemical debate. While the Edict did bring Huguenots the prospect of limited security as a privileged minority, it also brought home the final recognition that Protestantism had failed in its attempt at the conversion of France, which had seemed a real possibility in the heady days of the early 1560s. Huguenot authors confronted the difficulties of co-existence, and the inevitable dangers that others would follow the King out of the Church, in a new flurry of powerful original writings.

This collection offers a comprehensive survey of the original writings of the French Huguenot authors, from the first stirrings of radical dissent in the 1530s through to the end of the century. The selection privileges first and foremost original writings of authors writing within France and for an exclusively French audience. Thus whereas Calvin's Genevan writings are not included, the tracts penned by Theodore de Bèze as part of the polemic exchange during the Colloquy of Poissy (1561) do appear here. A further strength of the collection is the anonymous works that set the tone as the Huguenot movement emerged as an autonomous force during the early part of the 1560s. While these works have much in common with the visceral anti-Catholic polemic of the first evangelical generation, they also make extensive use of verse, reflecting the pervasive influence of the metrical psalms on the emerging movement. The collection does not, however, include purely political manifestos, such as those issued by the Duc de Condé to justify the military conflict in 1562; the same distinction governs the limitation of the works of du Plessis Mornay included to his religious writings, rather than the purely political manifestos he wrote on behalf of Henri de Navarre. All told the writings collected here reveal an intellectually vibrant movement, meeting unprecedented challenges and later hardship with that mixture of confidence, aggression, and resolution in the face of adversity that characterises Calvinist churches of this era throughout Europe.

Andrew Pettegree, University of St Andrews

Daniel, Thomas

According to its medieval derivation, counterpoint denotes composition of “tone against tone” (Latin punctus contra punctum), that is, homophony (“unity” of voices). However, from the 15th century its meaning shifted more towards polyphony (“plurality of voices”; Setting, musical). In the broadest

Schnabel, Werner Wilhelm

urban craftsmen, who presented their works in the context of popular gatherings. A song (the Bar), which following the medieval tradition was for unaccompanied solo voice, consisted of an odd number o...

Redmann, Bernd

score [3]; [4]. The key musical genres of the 15th and 16th centuries were governed by the acoustic ideal of the human voice. However, it was entirely in keeping with contemporary musical performance pra...

Helbig, Annekathrin

that era, antisemitism—based on accusations voiced by the Christian side—was unknown; though not treated as subjects with equal rights, Jews were treated as dhimmi, “protected persons” (see also Ottoma...