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Edited by María Cristina Cuervo and Yves Roberge

A central question in the study of language concerns the mechanisms by which the participants in an event described by a sentence come to occupy their positions and acquire their interpretation. The papers included in this volume explore current issues and re-assess generally accepted premises on the relationship between lexical meaning and the morphosyntax of sentences by confronting two competing approaches to this issue. A long-standing approach is based on the assumption that it is the lexical meaning of a verb that determines, albeit indirectly, the basic properties of sentence structure at the level of verbal meaning, including asymmetric relations, thematic roles, case, and agreement. An alternative approach claims that, to a large extent, the syntax itself establishes possible verbal meanings on the basis of the legitimate relations that can exist between syntactic heads, complements, and specifiers. Amharic, Catalan, Chamorro, Chukchee, English, Georgian, Inuit, Korean, Malagasy, Slovenian and Spanish, are among the languages used to provide empirical evidence and illustrate the argumentation.

Contributors are: Víctor Acedo-Matellan, Grant Armstrong, Mark Baker, David Basilico, María Cristina Cuervo, E. Matthew Husband, Kyumin Kim, Terje Lohndal, Tatjana Marvin, Jaume Mateu, Mercedes Pujalte, Yves Roberge, Andrés Saab, and Lisa Travis.

The Semantics of Free Indirect Discourse

How Texts Allow Us to Mind-read and Eavesdrop

Series:

Regine Eckardt

Free indirect discourse presents us with the inner world of protagonists of a story. We seem to see the world through their eyes, and listen to their inner thoughts. The present study analyses the logic of free indirect discourse and offers a framework to represent multiple ways in which words betray the speaker's feelings and attitude. The theory covers tense, aspect, temporal indexicals, modal particles, exclamatives and other expressive elements and their dependence on shifting utterance contexts. It traces the subtle ways in which story texts can offer information about protagonists.

The study of free indirect discourse has been a topic of great interest in recent years in semantics and pragmatics. In this book, Regine Eckardt proposes a new theory of this domain and applies it to a wide variety of phenomena -- discourse particles, exclamatives, and mood -- in addition to the traditional indexical pronouns and tenses. She situates this project within a larger attempt to extend the tools of semantic analysis to fiction. Most formally oriented semanticists have not paid serious attention to this domain, which has resulted in a major gap in semantic theory; this book is thus a pioneering effort and raises many intriguing points. The total result is an empirically rich and exciting work which will be a profitable read for researchers interested in semantics, pragmatics, and formal approaches to literature. Eric McCready, Aoyama Gakuin University

Antonio Barcelona

more precisely. 10 These are the scores assigned to the segments under scrutiny: Gas- : T. –line : H (the vowel is somewhat longer and the closing consonant is voiced: /liːn/). Prof- : –soline : LL (disyllabic, with a long second syllable closed by a voiced consonant). Prof- : T vs. - essor : LL

Jodi L. Sandford

dot stands for the absence of that component. There are also examples of nasal pitch ( snort ), indicated with ‘nasal’, and level pitch ( intone ) indicated with ‘=’. 2. volume is a description of the loudness of voice. ‘↑’ stands for high volume ( yell ), ‘↓’ for low volume ( murmur ), and ‘•’ for

Ronald W. Langacker

Language Structure , 155 – 75 . Mahwah, nj : Erlbaum . Kemmer Suzanne . 1993 . The Middle Voice . Amsterdam : John Benjamins . Lakoff George . 1987 . Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind . Chicago : University of Chicago Press . ——— . 1990 . The invariance

Martina Lampert

include introducers to quotations (the various instantiations of a category now commonly known as quotatives ; cf. section 2), the verbal and non-verbal (e.g., figural and prosodic) devices employed to indicate ‘another voice,’ and the constituent(s) they assign the metalinguistic status of a quote. To

Martina Lampert

differential production and reception circumstances, address major determinants regarding the modality-specific representation of another voice. And, second, closely connected with this agenda, attention (by one of its most fundamental causes, perceptual contrast) is seen to naturally emerge as an essential

Fuyin Li, Jing Du and Phillip Wolff

feature for this construction is the bei construction, which is a passive voice marker in Mandarin Chinese. In these examples, the entire caused event appears initially in the sentence; the causing event may or may not appear. Causing event is not a mandatory element in passive voice. In the cases that

Ye Yuan

voice , sell papers , and sell eloquence ; we dedicate theories and practices with voice and ppt s . We have never extorted or snatched anything , nor fed on our folks , nor offended God or principle . When the lecturing is successful, we thank God and thank the students ; when the

Leonard Talmy

some conceptual content, she can at the same time talk higher or lower [2], louder or softer [3], with a range of voice qualities [4], with greater or lesser precision [5], faster or slower [6], with different amounts of spacing between words [7], and with more or fewer repetitions [8]. Comparably