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Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

-in-hand in a circle, referred to as devir , “which corresponds to dance or rather ambulatory circle.” The “most enthusiastic” continue longest, “take off their turbans, form a second circle in the middle of the first, place their arms on one another’s shoulders, gradually raise their voices, endlessly

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

begin the prayer; and finally the caretaker ( kayyum ) of the mosque. In general, the mosque functionaries were not hierarchically ranked like the judges and medrese professors. Müezzins with especially fine voices could become star performers of special types of religious texts, such as the Mevlid

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

voices of imams leading the prayers and of dervishes and emirs reciting from the Qur’an. In battle, the religious leaders roused the troops’ zeal with ceaseless cries of ya gazi, ya şehid : live a warrior for the faith ( gazi ), or die a martyr ( şehid ). Commanders gave the signal for battle by

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

silence, a voice was heard to cry “No infidels!” The words were taken up instantly, and people added “Chase them, strike them,” and immediately Christians, who were present in great number among the spectators, were insulted; then, the furor grew, and they were set upon with lance and halberd. Attacked

Series:

Carter Vaughn Findley

traverses two immense rows of Janissaries, all in profound silence. Any acclamation is even forbidden; only occasionally one hears women cry maşallah [God save] or utter wishes in low voices for the Monarch’s prosperity. The Sultan salutes none but the military who line his route; he holds his right hand