The parable has received little attention as a form in Zoroastrian Pahlavi literature. Taking a first step to correct this deficit, this article examines an extended parable that appears in the Škand Gumānīg Wizār, the ninth century theological and political treatise. The parable likens Ohramzd’s conflict with Ahriman and his creation of the world to a gardener’s attempt to keep hungry vermin from his garden by means of a trap. Borrowing tools developed in the study of rabbinic exegetical parables and poetics, the article argues that the garden parable not only aims to make a theological point as part of its immediate context in the Škand Gumānīg Wizār, but also it itself is an interpretation of the Zoroastrian account of creation. The article shows how the parable reinterprets inconsistencies and contradictions in that cosmogony, relating to the account of creation just as rabbinic parables relate to the gaps in canonical, biblical narratives.
Since the Hellenistic times (if not earlier) Iran participates in the philosophical development of classical Greece. In the times of the Sasanians some knowledge of Aristotelian and Neo-Platonic thinking is detectable, and treatises were written for Xosrō I by philosophers who were well acquainted with the writings of Aristotle. It was always maintained that also Sasanian Zoroastrianism was affected through these Greek-Iranian contacts. But it is remarkable that among the Zoroastrian writings of the 9th-10th centuries only two books–Dēnkard 3 and Škand Gumānīg Wīzār–seem to be substantially influenced by Aristotelian/Neo-Platonic terms and concepts. The paper deals with the question whether the Greek elements within these texts should not better be understood as the fruit of a Zoroastrian participation in the general interest of the Islamic world in Greek thinking in Abbasid Baghdad.
Sanskrit language by me, Nirīosangha, son of Dhaval. Nēryōsangh Dhaval is also credited with rendering Pahlavi into Pāzand. The Pāzand-Sanskrit manuscripts of, for example, the ŠkandGumānīgWizār and the Ardā Wīrāz Nāmag 4 contain within their introduction the additional statement that the manuscripts
Mileve', 307-324; W. Sundermann, 'Das Manichäerkapitel des Škandgumânîgwizâr in der Darstellung und Deutung Jean de Menasces', 325-337. Origène, Homélies sur les Nombres. [Tome] III: Homélies XX-XXVIII. Texte latin de W.A. Baehrens (G.C.S.). Nouvelle edition par Louis Doutreleau (Sources Chrétiennes
Exegetical Parables in the ŠkandGumānīgWizār .” Iran and the Caucasus 17 ( 2013 ): 253 – 274 .
Ulmer , Rivka . The Evil Eye in the Bible and in Rabbinic Literature . Hoboken, NJ : Ktav , 1994 .
Wald , Shmuel Yosef . Pereq Elu Overin (BT Pesahim III) . New York and Jerusalem : The
concerned are listed in de Menasce’s masterly introduction to the sixteenth chapter of the ŠkandGumānīgWizār 5 and treat doctrinal aspects of the dispute between the two religions. However, two passages are of a different nature and clearly date from Islamic times.
The first of these is an obscure
, the ŠkandGumānīgWizār , the Dēnkard , and certain Islamic specimens, in order to make two important observations: First, that in spite of being a predominantly religious corpus of literature, the Middle Persian Zoroastrian works do contain important, albeit not extensive, information—in this
gumānīgwizār in der Darstellung und Deutung Jean de Menasces.” In J. van Oort, O. Wermelinger and G. Wurst (eds.), Augustine and Manichaeism in the Latin West (Nag Hammadi and Man- ichaean studies 49), Leiden/Boston/Köln: Brill, 325–337.
M. Stausberg / Numen 55 (2008) 561–600 599 ———. 2001c
argument appears in the ŠkandGumānīgWizār , a Middle Persian apologetic treatise composed during the ninth century by Mardān-Farrox, which offers a systematic critique of various religions, including the Christian faith. 80 At the beginning of chapter 15, which deals with Christianity, its author