chick starvation in the treatment nests, and was less evident in years of naturally higher food supply.
The Lesser Kestrel ( Falconaumanni ) is a small falcon that breeds colonially and nests mainly in small cavities – on cliffs, on walls of abandoned quarries, under tiled roofs of rural and urban
or quality decreased. Beheler et al. (2003) showed a marked WSLS behavior for both males and females of Eastern Phoebes ( Sayornis phoebe ) in successive nesting within the same year, but not between years. In their study of breeding dispersal in the colonial Lesser Kestrel ( Falconaumanni
A survey of the bird-parasitizing louse flies (Omithomyini) in Israel was canied out between 1990 and 1993. Specimens belonging to 13 species were examined. Seven species were previously known from Israel (lcosta ardeae (Macquart), I. meda (Maa), I. minor (Bigot), Ornithoica turdi Olivier, Ornithomya chloropus (Bergroth), Ornithophila metallica (Schiner), and Pseudolynchia canariensis (Macquart)), and six species are recorded as new to the Israeli fauna (Crataerina pallida Olivier, from swifts (Apus apus); Icosta zumpti Maa, from a buzzard (Buteo buteo); Ornithomya avicularia L., from a blackbird (Turdus merula) Ornithomya biloba Dufour, from swallows (Hirundo rustica) and sand martins (Riparia riparia) Ornithomya gigantea n. sp. (described here), from a blackcap (Sylvia atricapilla); and Ornithophila gestroi Rondani, from lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni)). Louse flies were found on 26 species of birds, 24 of which constitute new host records for Israel.
Institution of Washington .
Forero MG , Tella JL , Donazar JA , Hiraldo F . 1996 . Can interspecific competition and nest availability explain the decrease of Lesser Kestrel Falconaumanni populations? Biol Conserv . 78 : 289 – 293 .
Gaffin SR , Rosenzweig C , Eichenbaum
that breeding failure and mate loss (divorce or death) favored breeding dispersion, both in males and females of Black Kites ( Milvus migrans ). In their study of breeding dispersal in the colonial Lesser Kestrel ( Falconaumanni ), Calabuig et al. ( 2008 ) conclude that dispersal may result in part
., 1987; Garzón, 1973 Milvus migrans X X Delibes, 1975; Fernández-Cruz, 1973 Neophron percnopterus X X Pérez-Chiscano, 1973 Falconaumanni X Franco and Andrada, 1976 Ciconia ciconia X X Pleguezuelos, obs. pers. Ciconia nigra X Domínguez et al., 1985 Porphyrio porphyrio X Cramp, 1983 Podiceps cristatus X X
ob- tain sufficient food if they feed all day. However, the world is essentially stochastic. The day-to-day variation in the quantity of prey eaten depends upon the average number of prey eaten (the law of large numbers). Thus, predators such as thrushes Tur- dus spp., lesser kestrels Falconaumanni
falcon Falco peregrinus , hobby Falco subbuteo , lesser kestrel Falconaumanni , kestrel Falco tinnunculus and unidenti ed falcons. Unidenti ed falcons might include a few sparrowhawks Accipiter nisus , because at large distance or under poor visibility it was very dif cult to distinguish these genera
pairs are raising fewer young, and residents leave areas at higher rates if the number and quality of other pairs’ nestlings there are low (Doligez et al., 2002 ). Lesser kestrels ( Falconaumanni ) use the reproductive success of other breeders to select breeding sites over successive breeding seasons
: who deserves the silver spoon? —
195 - 200 .
( 2010 ).
Temporal changes in Lesser Kestrel ( Falconaumanni ) diet during the breeding season in Southern Spain . —
J. Raptor Res.
120 - 128