Abstract

The introduction of Islamic criminal law in twelve northern states of the Nigerian federation after 1999 was widely perceived as an attempt to Islamise the Nigerian state. In this article it is argued that the “šarī'a project” started as a pre-election promise, but was immediately supported by Muslim reform groups whose aim was not the establishment of an Islamic state but rather the imposition of šarī'a compliant behaviour on Muslims. Particular emphasis was put on illicit sexual relations (zinā). However, Muslim societies of northern Nigeria have a notion of zinā which differs in important aspects from the classical doctrine, and certain forms of socially accepted extramarital sexuality still exist. Based on an analysis of a sample of šarī'a court trials for rape, sodomy, incest and zinā, it is shown that the judicial practice in šarī'a courts has helped to mitigate the effects of Islamic criminal law on the traditional societies in northern Nigeria. In particular, accusations based on suspicion and pregnancy out of wedlock as proof of zinā have been rejected by the courts, thereby confirming the privacy of the family compound and traditional conflict resolution through mediation. At the same time, male control over female sexuality has been strengthened.

In: Die Welt des Islams
Author: Miklos Muranyi

verdient aus verschiedenen Grfnden unsere Aufmerksamkeit. Die Fatwa ist in einem Klima entstanden, das sich in den letzten Jahren durch einen besonderen Drang zur Sari `a-Rechtsprechung in allen Lebensbereichen auszeichnet. Seit der SchlieBung der Sari `a- Gerichtsh6fe in Agypten im Januar 1956' hat sich

In: Arabica
In: Moderne Zugänge zum Islam
Author: Daniel De Smet

Abstract

Dans ses épîtres appartenant aux Rasāil al-hikma, le corpus des écrits canoniques qui forment la base de la religion druze, Hamza b. ‘Alī ébauche assez sommairement les principes d'une « loi spirituelle » censée remplacer la šarī‘a musulmane abrogée par al-Hākim, et il y préconise une juridiction spécifiquement druze. Il dit avoir traité de cette loi dans un écrit intitulé al-Šarī‘a l-rūhāniyya fī ‘ilm al-latīf wa-l-basīt wa-l-kathīf, qui toutefois ne figure pas dans le Canon, bien que les Druzes actuels en possèdent des manuscrits. Or, il s'agit à coup sûr d'un texte apocryphe, de date incertaine mais de loin postérieure à Hamza. En contradiction avec la doctrine développée dans les écrits canoniques, le druzisme y est présenté comme une religion révélée et scripturaire, à forte teneur « hermétique ».

In: Arabica
The Mahdī’s Legal Methodology and Doctrine
Author: Aharon Layish
The Sudanese Mahdī headed a millenarian, revivalist, reformist movement in Islam, strongly inspired by Salafī and Ṣūfī ideas, in late 19th century in an attempt to restore the Caliphate of the Prophet and “Righteous Caliphs” in Medina. As the “Successor of the Prophet”, the Mahdī was conceived of as the political head of the Islamic state and its supreme religious authority. On the basis of his legal opinions, decisions, proclamations and “traditions” attributed to him, an attempt is made to reconstruct his legal methodology consisting of the Qurʾān, sunna, and inspiration ( ilhām) derived from the Prophet and God, its origins, and its impact on Islamic legal doctrine, and to assess his “legislation” as an instrument to promote his political, social and moralistic agenda.

Der Begriff Sch. (arab. šarī‘a, osman.-türk. şerī‘at) bezeichnet im verbreiteten muslim. Verständnis die Gesamtheit der von Gott durch den Koran und durch den Propheten Muḥammad übermittelten Normen für Glauben, Ethik und Recht des Islam. Der Begriff umfasst das Korpus der normativen islam. Texte

In: Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online
Author: Katajun Amirpur

Abstract

Indubitably, Iranian thinker 'Abdolkarīm Sorūš (b. 1945) in the course of the Islamic Republic's history has undergone an impressive change from establishment ideologist to its most prominent dissident. From 1980 on, he was a member of the Council of the Cultural Revolution, an organisation that dismissed oppositional, i.e. secular minded professors from their university posts, and he often appeared on TV as the Islamic Republic's apologist denouncing the left wing's ideology. But in the late 1980s, Sorūš published his epistemological theory of the evolution of religious knowledge in Keyhān-e Farhangī magazine. Controversies between the magazine's state-appointed publisher and the two journalists who had accepted Sorūš's articles for publication inspired the latter to found Kīyān magazine, which was Sorūš's mouthpiece as much as it became the most important platform of the religious newthinkers, and the religious reform's backbone until its proscription in 2001. Sorūš's transition to a post-Islamist thinker began with his theory of what he chose to call theoretical contraction and expansion of the šarī'a and it continued with his theory of religious-democratic government. In all of his later essays, he spoke out against the monopolization of exegesis by one single social class and against tendencies of taking fatwās for religion itself. In 1997, he published his probably most radical theory, which however was not widely noted until 2007, when the English translation of the essay in question was about to be published and Sorūš spoke of it in an interview. In what did finally appear in English under the title “The Expansion of Prophetic Experience” in 2009, he argued that “like a poet, the Prophet transmits the divine inspiration into the language he knows, the styles and images he masters, and the knowledge he possesses”. And this human view of the Qur'ān makes it possible to distinguish between what he calls the 'essential' and the 'accidental' aspects of religion. Some parts of religion are historically and culturally determined and no longer relevant today. At this epistemological revolution, some of Sorūš's critics accused him of having left his faith for good; others see in it a chance to bring about Islam's aggiornamento.

In: Die Welt des Islams
Author: Savory, R.M.

, ville de la province persane du Māzandarān, et capitale d’un district (bulūk) du même nom, située à 36° 41’55" de lat. N. et à 53° 32’ 30" de long. E., à 8 km. de la côte de la mer Caspienne, à 56 km. à l’E. de Sārī, à 69 km. à l’O. d’Astarābād sur la route entre ces deux villes. La ville s

Author: Noort, E.

halten und seine Leibwache (2Sam 23,23) bilden. 1Sam 30,14 nennt einen Negeb der K., unweit von Ziklag (Tell eš-Šarī‘a), dem Lehen Davids aus seiner Vasallenzeit beim Philisterkönig Achis. Zu dieser Zeit wurden die K. und P. wahrscheinlich verpflichtet. Die spätere Zeit beschreibt die K. (hebr. כְּרֵתִים

glaubhaft, die Fiktion aufrechtzuerhalten, dass die von europdischem Recht bceinflussten neuen Gesetze der Sari'a, wenigstens ihrem Geistc, entsprechen. Lediglich an zwei Stellen der islamischen Welt leisten die Vertcidiger der Sarica noch erfolgreichen Widerstand : in Pakistan (trotz dcr fortschrittlichen

In: Die Welt des Islams