To assess the characteristics of tension wood (TW) in Trochodendron aralioides Sieb. et Zucc., seedling stems were artificially inclined at angles of 30° (TW- 30), 50° (TW-50), and 70° (TW-70) from the vertical. At all angles, the growth promotion was pronounced on the upper side of the inclined stems, where excessive tensile growth stress was observed. A gelatinous layer (G-layer) formed in the tracheids of TW. The cell wall structure of the tracheids in TW was S1 + G. The G-layer had a small pit aperture angle <10°. TW-50 showed larger tensile growth stress, a thicker G-layer area, and a smaller pit aperture angle of the Glayer than TW-30 and TW-70. Lower levels of Klason lignin and hemicellulose and higher levels of α-cellulose content were observed in TW-50. In addition, an increase in glucose content and a decrease in xylose content in holocellulose were observed in TW-50. Therefore, it can be concluded that the degree of TW varied with different inclination angles.
) demonstrated that α-cellulose extraction with sodium chlorite and sodium hydroxide yielded the same result as the soxhlet treatment. The method from Rinne et al. (2005) was followed in this study. Samples were treated with a sodium chlorite solution (4.3 g sodium chlorite, 3 ml of acetic acid, and 600 ml of
part, the carbon and water balance of forests and can be estimated from wood α-cellulose δ 13 C ( Seibt et al. 2008 ). Climate warming and increasing atmospheric CO 2 are leading to changes in WUEi of tree species observed in many ecosystems ( Saurer et al. 2014 ; Frank et al. 2015 ; van der